Urogenit Tract Infect.  2016 Apr;11(1):1-6. 10.14777/uti.2016.11.1.1.

Clinical Significance of Toll-Like Receptor and Toll-Like Receptor Blocker

  • 1Department of Urology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea. urokyh@naver.com


The mammalian Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, consisting of 13 members, plays an important role in innate recognition of specific patterns of microbial products. TLR-dependent recognition subsequently causes an activation of antigen-specific adaptive immunity. TLR-mediated signaling pathways consist of two pathways that induce gene expression: the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent pathway and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-domain containing adaptor protein-inducing interferon-β-dependent pathway. Synthetic TLR agonists, as well as TLR antagonists, affect and manipulate the host defense systems, and some of these immunomodulating agents may help to overcome intrinsic disturbances of the TLR system to offer new treatment options in urinary tract infection (UTI). Future studies are necessary to clarify additional associations between TLRs and severity of UTI, which may help in developing new treatment options.


Toll-like receptors; Immunity; Urinary tract infections

MeSH Terms

Adaptive Immunity
Gene Expression
Toll-Like Receptors*
Urinary Tract Infections
Toll-Like Receptors
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