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NaHCO 3- and NaCl-Type Hot Springs Enhance the Secretion of Inflammatory Cytokine Induced by Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid in HaCaT Cells

Park SH, Jung BY, Lee SY, Yu DS, Woo SY, Yun ST, Lee JT, Kim JW, Lee YB

Background: Hot springs have been traditionally used as an alternative treatment for a wide range of diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, bronchial asthma, diabetes, hypertension, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. However, the...
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Porcine parvovirus nonstructural protein NS1 activates NF-κB and it involves TLR2 signaling pathway

Jin X, Yuan Y, Zhang C, Zhou Y, Song Y, Wei Z, Zhang G

Background: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a single-stranded DNA virus that causes porcine reproductive failure. It is of critical importance to study PPV pathogenesis for the prevention and control of the...
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Downregulation of IL-18 Expression in the Gut by Metformin-induced Gut Microbiota Modulation

Lee H, Kim J, An J, Lee S, Choi D, Kong H, Song Y, Park IH, Lee CK, Kim K

IL-18 is a crucial pro-inflammatory cytokine that mediates chronic intestinal inflammation. Metformin, an anti-diabetic drug, was reported to have ameliorative effects on inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, the mechanism of action...
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Comparison of inflammatory cytokine-inducing activity of lipopolysaccharides from major periodontal bacteria

Kim SH, Kang IC

Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Tannerella forsythia (Tf), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) are major periodontal pathogens. Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from periodontal bacteria play an important role in...
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Human Immunity Against Campylobacter Infection

Hameed A

Campylobacter is a worldwide foodborne pathogen, associated with human gastroenteritis. The efficient translocation of Campylobacter and its ability to secrete toxins into host cells are the 2 key features of...
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Expression of Toll-like Receptors, Pro-, and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines in Relation to Gut Microbiota in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Evidence for Its Micro-organic Basis

Shukla R, Ghoshal U, Ranjan P, Ghoshal UC

  • KMID: 2422853
  • J Neurogastroenterol Motil.
  • 2018 Oct;24(4):628-642.
  • doi: 10.5056/jnm18130
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A Subset of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may have mild inflammation due to immune activation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokines may cause intestinal inflammation. We studied their...
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Udenafil, a Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitor, Reduces Body Weight in High-Fat-Fed Mice

Ryu SY, Choi YJ, Park SY, Kim JY, Kim YD, Kim YW

PURPOSE: High-fat (HF) feeding induces hypothalamic leptin resistance via the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). TLR4 deficiency confers resistance to diet-induced obesity. Udenafil, an anti-impotence drug, inhibits TLR4 in...
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Association of Toll-like receptor 2-positive monocytes with coronary artery lesions and treatment nonresponse in Kawasaki disease

Kang SJ, Kim NS

PURPOSE: Activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) present on circulating monocytes in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) can lead to the production of proinflammatory cytokines and interleukin-10 (IL-10). We aimed...
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Higher Expression of Toll-like Receptors 3, 7, 8, and 9 in Pityriasis Rosea

El-Ela MA, El-Komy M, Hay RA, Hegazy R, Sharobim A, Rashed L, Amr K

BACKGROUND: Pityriasis rosea (PR) is a common papulosquamous skin disease in which an infective agent may be implicated. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in immune responses and in...
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Current Pharmacologic Approaches in Painful Bladder Research: An Update

Andersson , Birder L

The symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC)/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) may have multiple causes and involve many contributing factors. Traditional treatments (intravesical instillations) have had a primary focus on the bladder...
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Synergistic Effect of Dermatophagoides farinae and Lipopolysaccharides in Human Middle ear Epithelial Cells

Lee JE, Kim YH, Rhee CS, Kim DY

PURPOSE: Although the concept of "one airway, one disease," which includes the middle ear space as part of the united airway is well recognized, the role of allergens in otitis...
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Clinical Significance of Toll-Like Receptor and Toll-Like Receptor Blocker

Choi JY, Song PH, Ko YH

The mammalian Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, consisting of 13 members, plays an important role in innate recognition of specific patterns of microbial products. TLR-dependent recognition subsequently causes an activation of...
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Small Heterodimer Partner and Innate Immune Regulation

Yuk JM, Jin HS, Jo EK

The nuclear receptor superfamily consists of the steroid and non-steroid hormone receptors and the orphan nuclear receptors. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) is an orphan family nuclear receptor that plays an...
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Induction of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by Pre-treatment with Poly(I:C) May Enhance the Efficacy of MSC Treatment in DSS-induced Colitis

Ryu DB, Lim JY, Lee SE, Park G, Min CK

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used experimentally for treating inflammatory disorders, partly owing to their immunosuppressive properties. The goal of the study was to determine whether TLR ligands can...
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Systematic Analysis of Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO) Ligands on Toll-like Receptors-mediated Pro-inflammatory Responses in Microglia and Astrocytes

Lee JW, Nam H, Yu SW

Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a mitochondrial protein highly expressed on reactive microglia and astrocytes, and is considered as a biomarker for neurodegeneration and brain damage, especially neuroinflammation. Toll-like...
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Berberine Prevents Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Damage During Early Phase of Sepsis in Rat through the Toll-Like Receptors Signaling Pathway

Li GX, Wang XM, Jiang T, Gong JF, Niu LY, Li N

Our previous study has shown berberine prevents damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier during early phase of sepsis in rat through mechanisms independent of the NOD-like receptors signaling pathway. In...
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Toll-like Receptors and NOD-like Receptors in Innate Immune Defense during Pathogenic Infection

Jin HS, Park JK, Jo EK

In response to invading pathogens, the body immune system develops an immediate defense mechanism, i.e., innate immune response, which is detected in almost all living organisms including mammals, plants, insects,...
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Prophylactic and Therapeutic Modulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity Against Mucosal Infection of Herpes Simplex Virus

Uyangaa E, Patil AM, Eo SK

Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are the most common cause of genital ulceration in humans worldwide. Typically, HSV-1 and 2 infections via mucosal route result...
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The Innate Immune Responses in Pathogenesis of Chronic Rhinosinusitis

Mo JH

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a multifactorial and heterogeneous disease, and variousfactors, such as inflammation, infection, fungus, and superantigens, have been proposed to play crucial roles in its pathogenesis. Recently, the...
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Lipopolysaccharide: Basic Biochemistry, Intracellular Signaling, and Physiological Impacts in the Gut

Rhee SH

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a main constituent of Gram-negative bacterial membrane, specifically activates Toll-like receptor 4, leading to the production of pleiotropic cytokines/chemokines which in turn regulate inflammatory and innate and subsequent...
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