Exp Neurobiol.  2016 Jun;25(3):103-112. 10.5607/en.2016.25.3.103.

Adult Neurogenesis and Gliogenesis: Possible Mechanisms for Neurorestoration

Affiliations
  • 1Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia. y.fu@neura.edu.au
  • 2Prince of Wales Clinical School, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
  • 3School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Abstract

The subgranular zone (SGZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) are developmental remnants of the germinal regions of the brain, hence they retain the ability to generate neuronal progenitor cells in adult life. Neurogenesis in adult brain has an adaptive function because newly produced neurons can integrate into and modify existing neuronal circuits. In contrast to the SGZ and SVZ, other brain regions have a lower capacity to produce new neurons, and this usually occurs via parenchymal and periventricular cell genesis. Compared to neurogenesis, gliogenesis occurs more prevalently in the adult mammalian brain. Under certain circumstances, interaction occurs between neurogenesis and gliogenesis, facilitating glial cells to transform into neuronal lineage. Therefore, modulating the balance between neurogenesis and gliogenesis may present a new perspective for neurorestoration, especially in diseases associated with altered neurogenesis and/or gliogenesis, cell loss, or disturbed homeostasis of cellular constitution. The present review discusses important neuroanatomical features of adult neurogenesis and gliogenesis, aiming to explore how these processes could be modulated toward functional repair of the adult brain.

Keyword

Neurogenesis; gliogenesis; aging; neurodegeneration; neurorestoration
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