Korean J Nutr.  2009 Jun;42(4):318-326. 10.4163/kjn.2009.42.4.318.

Vitamin A and Vitamin E Status of Diabetic Patients and Normal Adults in Korea

  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701, Korea. jsook@kmu.ac.kr
  • 2The Korean Nutrition Society, Seoul 135-703, Korea.
  • 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Daegu Catholic University, Daegu 712-702, Korea.


We evaluated the vitamin A and E status of type 2 diabetic patients and normal adults living in Daegu area. Dietary intakes for two non-consecutive days were measured by 24-hour recall method for 76 diabetic patients and 72 normal adults. Plasma levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol were measured using HPLC method. Dietary intakes of vitamin A were not significantly different between the diabetic and the normal adults. However, the diabetic patients had significantly lower vitamin E intakes than the normal adults. Major food sources for vitamin A intake were red pepper powder and carrot. Half of the subjects from diabetic as well as normal adults consumed less than estimated average requirement of vitamin A. Plasma levels of retinol and tocopherol were maintained within normal ranges for most of the subjects regardless of diabetic status. Dietary intake of vitamin A was associated with vitamin E intake, however, there was no significant correlations between vitamin E intake and plasma alpha-tocopherol levels. It seems that diabetic patients should try to increase dietary intake of vitamin E, as prolonged lower-level intake of vitamin E could eventually lead to vitamin E depletion. Further studies are needed to identify the magnitude of dietary variance at individual and seasonal levels, and to understand the discrepancies in dietary intake and plasma levels before establishing the dietary reference intake based on Korean dietary pattern.


diabetes; vitamin A intake; vitamin E intake; plasma alpha-tocopherol; plasma retinol

MeSH Terms

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Daucus carota
Reference Values
Vitamin A
Vitamin E
Vitamin A
Vitamin E

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