Korean J Physiol Pharmacol.  1999 Aug;3(4):383-391.

Influence of mild hypothermia on clonidine-induced cardiovascular responses in the pentobarbital-anesthetized rat

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Socho-gu, Seoul, 137-701 South Korea.

Abstract

This study was carried out to determine whether the effects of an alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine, on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) are influenced by mild hypothermia. Experiments were performed in respiration-controlled and spontaneously breathing pentobarbital-anesthetized rats Rectal temperature was maintained at 37.5 +/- 0.3degreeC for normothermic groups or at 35.2 +/- 0.3degreeC for mild hypothermic groups. Intravenous injection of clonidine (1 and 2 mug/kg) produced depressor and bradycardic responses in spontaneously breathing rats under both normothermic and mild hypothermic condition a decrease in MAP was not altered but bradycardic response was significantly augmented in the mild hypothermic group as compared with the normothermic group. Under the respiration-controlled condition, the hypotensive effect of clonidine (2 mug/kg) was reduced, whereas the bradycardic effect was increased in mild hypothermic rats as compared with normothermic rats. Both hypotensive and bradycardic effects of clondine (2 mug/kg) were blocked by pretreatment with an alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (0.5 mg/kg), in both thermal conditions. Yohimbine (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.) alone produced signifcantly an increase in heart rate in the mild hypothermic group than in the normothermic group. Pretreatment with a muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine methylnitrate (1 mg/kg, i.v.), attenuated the bradycardic effect of clonidine in the mild hypothermic group but not in the normothermic group. These results suggest that clonidine-induced bradycardia is amplified by mild hypothermia probably through an increased parasympathetic activity.

Keyword

Clonidine; Mild hypothermia; Heart rate; Blood pressure; Perioperative period
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