Exp Neurobiol.  2011 Dec;20(4):189-196. 10.5607/en.2011.20.4.189.

Odor-Dependent Hemodynamic Responses Measured with NIRS in the Main Olfactory Bulb of Anesthetized Rats

  • 1Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702, Korea. hcshin@hallym.ac.kr
  • 2School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784, Korea.
  • 3Division of IT Convergence Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784, Korea.
  • 4Department of Computer Science, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784, Korea.
  • 5Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.


In this study, we characterize the hemodynamic changes in the main olfactory bulb of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, ISS Imagent) during presentation of two different odorants. Odorants were presented for 10 seconds with clean air via an automatic odor stimulator. Odorants are: (i) plain air as a reference (Blank), (ii) 2-Heptanone (HEP), (iii) Isopropylbenzene (IB). Our results indicated that a plain air did not cause any change in the concentrations of oxygenated (Delta[HbO2]) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Delta[Hbr]), but HEP and IB induced strong changes. Furthermore, these odor-specific changes had regional differences within the MOB. Our results suggest that NIRS technology might be a useful tool to identify of various odorants in a non-invasive manner using animals which has a superb olfactory system.


near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); hemodynamic response; main olfactory bulb (MOB); non-invasive; odorant; brain-machine interface (BMI)
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