J Nutr Health.  2014 Feb;47(1):51-66.

A study of the major dish group, food group and meal contributing to sodium and nutrient intake in Jeju elementary and middle school students

  • 1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea. yangsook@jejunu.ac.kr


The objective of this study was to investigate the differences of sodium intake in the diet according to the kind of meal, food group, and dish group.
A dietary survey was conducted using the 24-hour recall method from April to May, 2009. The study subjects consisted of 701 elementary and 1,184 middle school students in the Jeju area. Mean sodium intake and the percentage contribution of meals and each dish and food group to daily sodium intake were calculated.
The daily sodium intake was 2,868.4 mg and 3,032.5 mg in elementary and middle school students. For elementary school students, breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack provided approximately 18.0%, 35.1%, 32.8%, and 14.1% of total daily sodium intake, and for middle school students, 15.3%, 40.2%, 29.1%, and 15.5%, respectively. Major food groups for sodium intake were spices (1,252.5 mg in elementary, 1158.0 mg in middle school students), vegetables and their products (409.0 mg, 495.6 mg), cereal and grain products (322.4 mg, 647.8 mg), and fish and shellfish (255.3 mg, 336.6 mg). Except cereal and grain products, sodium intake of the food groups mentioned above was greater at lunch and dinner than at breakfast and snack. And, the elementary and middle school students obtained 5.9% and 9.8% of total daily sodium intake from cereal and grain products at snack. Among the 29 dish groups, the highest dish groups contributing to dietary sodium intake were soup and stew and tang/jeongol, consuming 19.8% (elementary school students) and 25.4% (middle school students) of daily sodium intake. The following major dish groups contributing to dietary sodium intake, in order, were kimchi, seasoned vegetables, grilled dish, stir-fried dish, and a la carte. By meals, the percentage of sodium intake from soup, kimchi, stew, fried dish, and stir-fried dish at school lunch was high, from noodles, grilled dish, and a la carte at dinner, and from bakery/snacks and noodles at snack.
Sodium intake from the various side dishes at school lunch was high and noodles and bakery/snacks were popular snack foods in elementary and middle school students in Jeju area. In order to lower the intake of sodium, students need to be educated about eating less soup and choosing better snacks.


sodium intake; dish group; meal group; adolescents; Jeju area
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