Nutr Res Pract.  2022 Oct;16(5):646-657. 10.4162/nrp.2022.16.5.646.

Comparison of total energy intakes estimated by 24-hour diet recall with total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method in adults

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 25457, Korea
  • 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Gangneung 25457, Korea
  • 3Division of Health and Nutrition Survey and Analysis, Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, Cheongju 28160, Korea
  • 4Faculty of Applied Biosciences, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 1568502, Japan
  • 5Department of Physical Education, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
  • 6Major of Food and Nutrition, Pai Chai University, Daejeon 35345, Korea
  • 7Department of Food and Nutrition, Keimyung University, Daegu 42601, Korea

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES
The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is the gold standard for estimating total energy expenditure (TEE) and is also useful for verifying the validities of dietary evaluation tools. In this study, we compared the accuracy of total energy intakes (TEI) estimated by the 24-h diet recall method with TEE obtained using the doubly labeled water method.
SUBJECTS/METHODS
This study involved 71 subjects aged 20–49 yrs. Over a 14-day period, three 24-h diet recalls per subject (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) were used to estimate energy intakes, while TEE was measured using the DLW method. The paired t-test was used to determine the significance of differences between TEI and TEE results, and the accuracy of the 24-h recall method was determined by accuracy predictions percentage, root mean square error, and bias.
RESULTS
Average study subject age was 33.4 ± 8.6 yrs. The association between TEI and TEE was positive and significant (r = 0.463, P < 0.001), and the difference between TEI (2,084.3 ± 684.2 kcal/day) and TEE (2,401.7 ± 480.3 kcal/day) was also significant (P < 0.001). In all study subjects, mean TEI was 12.0% (307.5 ± 629.3 kcal/day) less than mean TEE, and 12.2% (349.4 ± 632.5 kcal/day) less in men and 11.8% (266.7 ± 632.5 kcal/day) less in women. Rates of TEI underprediction for all study subjects, men, and women, were 60.5%, 51.4%, and 66.7%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
This study shows that 24-h diet recall underreports energy intakes. More research is needed to corroborate our findings and evaluate the accuracy of 24-h recall with respect to additional demographics.

Keyword

Energy metabolism; energy intake; adult

Figure

  • Fig. 1 Correlation between TEE measured by the DLW method and TEI estimated by 24-h diet recall.DLW, doubly labeled water; TEI, total energy intake; TEE, total energy expenditure.

  • Fig. 2 Bland-Altman plot for TEE measured by the DLW method and TEI estimated by 24-h diet recall.DLW, doubly labeled water; TEI, total energy intake; TEE, total energy expenditure.


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