J Breast Cancer.  2019 Dec;22(4):613-623. 10.4048/jbc.2019.22.e48.

Oncologic Outcomes of Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy with Immediate Breast Reconstruction in Patients with Tumor–Nipple Distance Less than 2.0 cm

  • 1Division of Breast Surgery, Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Paojlus@hanmail.com
  • 2Division of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Specialized Surgical Unit, King Abdullah Medical City, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
  • 3Department of Surgery, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon, Korea.


Although the indications for nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) are expanding, there remains a debate regarding the oncologic outcomes of patients treated with this method, especially those with a short tumor–nipple distance (STND). The aim of this study was to compare the long-term oncologic outcomes between patients with a long tumor–nipple distance (LTND) (≥ 2.0 cm) and those with STND (< 2.0 cm).
This was a retrospective study in which 266 patients who underwent NSM with immediate breast reconstruction between January 2008 and December 2014 at a single institution were enrolled. Of these patients, 21 were excluded because of loss to follow-up; thus, 245 patients were finally analyzed. All patients underwent preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative frozen biopsy.
The mean age of the patients was 42.4 years. STND was identified in 128 patients, and LTND in 117 patients. The mean follow-up period was 60.5 months. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with respect to lymphovascular invasion, nuclear grade, nodal status, and subtype (p = 0.339, 0.372, 0.955, and 0.338, respectively). The STND group had significantly smaller tumors than the LTND group (p = 0.005). The median TND in the STND and LTND groups was 0.7 cm and 3.0 cm, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was reported in 4 patients in the STND group (3.1%) and 6 (5.1%) in the LTND group. A total of 3 patients died (1.2%; 2 in the STND group and one in the LTND group). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups with respect to disease-free survival or local recurrence-free survival (p = 0.334 and p = 0.477, respectively).
The long-term oncologic outcomes of patients treated with NSM did not significantly differ according to TND when the intraoperative frozen biopsy was negative for tumor cells.


Breast neoplasms; Prognosis; Subcutaneous mastectomy
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