J Korean Acad Oral Health.  2019 Dec;43(4):196-203. 10.11149/jkaoh.2019.43.4.196.

Elucidating the relationship of gingivitis and dental calculus with the periodontal health of 12-year-old children

  • 1Department of Preventive & Community Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea. jbomkim@pusan.ac.kr
  • 2BK21 PLUS Project, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea.
  • 3Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Cheongju University, Cheongju, Korea.


This study aimed to investigate factors related to the periodontal health of 12-year-old children.
In 2015, the Korean Children's Oral Health Survey from the Ministry of Health & Social Welfare conducted a nationwide representative sample comprised of 23,702 12-year-old children. The calibration-trained dentists examined the gingivitis and dental calculus of the children taking into consideration of the Löe and Silness gingival index to diagnose gingivitis with a modified gingivitis scale. We used questionnaires to collect data from the children on dental treatments, the experience of dental pain and gingival bleeding, self-perceived oral health, and oral health behaviors. Data were analyzed using a complex samples Chi-square test, general linear model, and logistic regression. Significance was determined at P < 0.05.
The prevalence of gingivitis was higher among males (OR 1.57), among children with poor perception (OR 1.19), dental calculus (OR 3.68), or gingival bleeding experience (OR 2.00), and among children not using dental floss (OR 1.69) or tongue cleaner (OR 1.90). The prevalence of dental calculus was higher among children with gingivitis (OR 3.82) and among children who had not visited a dental clinic in the preceding year (OR 1.31). However, dental calculus was lower among children with a higher frequency of daily toothbrushing (OR 0.75), intake of cariogenic foods (OR 0.90), or a higher DMFT index (OR 0.91).
Children with dental calculus and gingival bleeding who did not visit a dental clinic in the preceding year also had a higher prevalence of gingivitis and dental calculus. The prevalence of children's dental calculus was lower among children with a high frequency of daily toothbrushing.


Dental calculus; Gingival bleeding; Gingivitis; Oral health behavior; Oral hygiene device; Periodontal health
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