J Nutr Health.  2019 Feb;52(1):104-117. 10.4163/jnh.2019.52.1.104.

Dietary and health characteristics of the young-old and the old-old by food security status: analysis of data from the 6(th) (2013 ~ 2015) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea. kanaasano@snu.ac.kr
  • 2Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE
This study examined dietary and health characteristics of the young-old and the old-old by food security status.
METHODS
The study used data from the 6th (2013 ~ 2015) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study subjects consisted of 3,948 subjects, of whom 2,445 were the young-old (aged 65 to 74 years) and 1,503 were the old-old (aged 75 years and over). Food security status was evaluated using an 18-item questionnaire. Energy intake, nutrient densities, and prevalence of insufficient nutrient intake were assessed. Food intake was evaluated in terms of the number of food group servings. Dietary behaviors and health status were also assessed.
RESULTS
The prevalence of food insecurity among the young-old and the old-old was 10.0% and 11.6%, respectively. Among the young-old, the food insecure group had a significantly higher level of prevalence of insufficient intake for all the nutrients (protein, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorous, and iron) assessed in this study compared with the food secure group. In case of the old-old, significant differences were found only for four nutrients (protein, riboflavin, niacin, and phosphorus) in the prevalence of insufficient nutrient intake between the food secure and the food insecure groups. Kinds of food groups with significantly different numbers of servings by food security status were dissimilar between the two age groups. In both the age groups, the food insecure group consumed a significantly lower number of servings in meat·fish·eggs·legumes and fruits than the food secure group; grains and vegetables intake in the young-old and oils·sweets intake in the old-old differed in the number of servings by food security status. Among the young-old, the prevalence of chewing difficulties in the food insecure group was significantly higher than that of the food secure group, while among the old-old, no significant differences were found by food security status.
CONCLUSION
Dietary and health characteristics of the young-old and the old-old differed by food security status. Such differences were more apparent in the young-old than the old-old. Therefore, it is suggested that food and nutrition assistant programs should be designed with consideration of the differences.

Keyword

food supply; aged; diet; nutrition surveys

MeSH Terms

Ascorbic Acid
Calcium
Diet
Eating
Energy Intake
Food Supply*
Fruit
Humans
Korea*
Mastication
Niacin
Nutrition Surveys*
Prevalence
Riboflavin
Vegetables
Vitamin A
Ascorbic Acid
Calcium
Niacin
Riboflavin
Vitamin A
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