J Korean Med Sci.  2019 Sep;34(36):e232. 10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e232.

Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for ARUBA-Eligible Patients with Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

  • 1Department of Neurosurgery, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.
  • 2Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. jilee@skku.edu


A randomized trial of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA) reported superior outcomes in conservative management compared to interventional treatment. There were numerous limitations to the study. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) by comparing its outcomes to those of the ARUBA study.
We retrospectively reviewed ARUBA-eligible patients treated with GKS from June 2002 to September 2017 and compared against those in the ARUBA study. AVM obliteration and hemorrhage rates, and clinical outcomes following GKS were also evaluated.
The ARUBA-eligible cohort comprised 264 patients. The Spetzler-Martin grade was Grade I to II in 52.7% and III to IV in 47.3% of the patients. The mean AVM nidus volume, marginal dose, and follow-up period were 4.8 cm³, 20.8 Gy, and 55.5 months, respectively. AVM obliteration was achieved in 62.1%. The annual hemorrhage rate after GKS was 3.4%. A stroke or death occurred in 14.0%. The overall stroke or death rate of the ARUBA-eligible cohort was significantly lower than that of the interventional arm of the ARUBA study (P < 0.001) and did not significantly differ from that of the medical arm in the ARUBA study (P = 0.601).
GKS was shown to achieve a favorable outcome with low procedure-related morbidity in majority of the ARUBA-eligible patients. The outcome after GKS in our patients was not inferior to that of medical care alone in the ARUBA study. It is suggested that GKS is rather superior to medical care considering the short follow-up duration of the ARUBA study.


Arteriovenous Malformation; Gamma Knife Radiosurgery; Intracranial Hemorrhage; Stroke; ARUBA Study
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