Nutr Res Pract.  2019 Aug;13(4):323-332. 10.4162/nrp.2019.13.4.323.

Contribution of foods to absolute nutrient intake and between-person variations of nutrient intake in Korean preschoolers

  • 1Center for Gendered Innovations in Science and Technology Research (GISTeR), Korea Federation of Women's Science & Technology Associations, Seoul, 06130, Korea.
  • 2Department of Food and Nutrition, Daejeon University, Daejeon, 34520, Korea.
  • 3Daejeon Dong-gu Center for Children's Food Service Management, Daejeon, 34520, Korea.
  • 4Nutrition Counseling Center, Daejeon University, Daejeon, 34520, Korea.
  • 5Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Korea.
  • 6Department of Food and Nutrition, Hannam University, 1646 Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34054, Korea.


/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze specific foods influencing absolute nutrient intake and between-person variations of nutrient intake among Korean preschoolers. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study included 2,766 participants aged 1–5 years in the 2009–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Dietary data were obtained from a 24-h dietary recall method. Major food sources of absolute nutrient intake were evaluated based on percent contribution of each food. To assess the contribution of specific foods to between-person variations in nutrient intake, stepwise multiple regressions were performed and cumulative R2 was used.
White rice and milk were main food sources of energy, protein, carbohydrate, phosphorus, iron, potassium, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin. The percentage of fat contributed by milk was 21.3% which was the highest, followed by pork, soybean oil, and egg. White rice accounted for 25% and 40% of total variability in total energy and carbohydrate intakes, respectively. About 39% of variation in calcium intake was explained by milk while 40% of variation in phosphorous intake was explained by cheese. The top 10 foods contributing to between-person variations in nutrient intakes were similar with food items that mainly contributed to absolute nutrient intakes. The number of foods explaining 90% of absolute amounts of nutrient intakes varied from 28 for vitamin A to 80 for iron.
This study identified specific foods that contributed to absolute nutrient intakes and between-person variations in nutrient intakes among Korean preschoolers. Our findings can be used to develop dietary assessment tools and establish food-based dietary guidelines for young children.


Child; preschool; diet; nutritional status; nutrition assessment
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