Psychiatry Investig.  2018 Feb;15(2):111-117. 10.30773/pi.2017.04.24.

Validation of the Korean version of the 16-Item Prodromal Questionnaire in a Non-Help-Seeking College Population

  • 1Mindlink, Gwangju Bukgu Community Mental Health Center, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.
  • 2Department of Psychiatry, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.
  • 3Gwangju Mental Health Commission, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.
  • 4Department of Psychiatry, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.
  • 5Department of Psychology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.


To examine the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire (KPQ-16) in non-help-seeking university students.
Among 2,246 university students participated in the initial screening, 257 subjects with KPQ-16 scores ≥4 were interviewed. The criteria for ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis of the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) were the gold standard for diagnosis. An exploratory modified version of the questionnaire (mKPQ-16), to which three items from the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory were added, was also used to compensate for items on thought and cognitive problems.
Seventeen subjects met the CAARMS criteria for UHR of psychosis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was highest for the mKPQ-16 total score (AUROC=0.831, p < 0.001). The use of cutoff total scores of 7 for the mKPQ-16 and 6 for the KPQ-16 resulted in the best balance of sensitivity (76.5% and 64.7%, respectively) and specificity (75.4% and 71.2%, respectively).
The Korean versions of the PQ-16 are good instruments for screening for psychosis risk in university students. This validation of a questionnaire version with a small number of items may make it feasible to screen large numbers of young adults in the community.


Schizophrenia; Ultra-high risk; Attenuated psychosis syndrome; PQ-16; Screening

MeSH Terms

Mass Screening
Psychotic Disorders
Reproducibility of Results
ROC Curve
Sensitivity and Specificity
Young Adult
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