Investig Clin Urol.  2018 Mar;59(2):72-82. 10.4111/icu.2018.59.2.72.

Unmasking molecular profiles of bladder cancer

  • 1Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, Korea.
  • 2Departments of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
  • 3Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.


Precision medicine is designed to tailor treatments for individual patients by factoring in each person's specific biology and mechanism of disease. This paradigm shifted from a "one size fits all" approach to "personalized and precision care" requires multiple layers of molecular profiling of biomarkers for accurate diagnosis and prediction of treatment responses. Intensive studies are also being performed to understand the complex and dynamic molecular profiles of bladder cancer. These efforts involve looking bladder cancer mechanism at the multiple levels of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, lipidome, metabolome etc. The aim of this short review is to outline the current technologies being used to investigate molecular profiles and discuss biomarker candidates that have been investigated as possible diagnostic and prognostic indicators of bladder cancer.


Biomarkers; Liquid biopsy; Precision medicine; Urinary bladder neoplasms
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