Clin Nutr Res.  2013 Jul;2(2):81-90. 10.7762/cnr.2013.2.2.81.

Nutritional Intake of Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

  • 1The Catholic Institute of Ubiquitous Health Care, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701, Korea.,
  • 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701, Korea.


Adequate intake of nutrients by pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is very important for appropriate weight gain and maintenance of normoglycemia without ketonuria. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional intake of pregnant women with GDM or T2DM who had not been provided with nutritional education regarding blood glucose management. Between June 2008 and May 2010, 125 pregnant women who had been diagnosed with GDM or T2DM and had not received any nutrition education regarding glycemic control and proper diet during pregnancy were interviewed to collect data regarding background characteristics, health-related behaviors, and course of pregnancy and instructed to record their dietary intake using a 24-hour recall method for one day. Using the collected data, the index of nutritional quality, nutrient adequacy ratio, and mean adequacy ratio values of the subjects were calculated. Analysis of the values indicated that the majority of the subjects did not meet recommended intake levels for most micronutrients and consumed an undesirable ratio of macronutrients, specifically a higher percentage of total carbohydrates than the current recommendation level. The GDM and T2DM groups obtained 56.6% and 63.6%, respectively (p = 0.012), of their calories by carbohydrate intake, which exceeded the recommended levels (125.8% in GDM groups, 141.3% in T2DM groups).


Nutrient intake; Gestational diabetes mellitus; Type 2 diabetes mellitus

MeSH Terms

Blood Glucose
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
Diabetes, Gestational*
Nutritive Value
Pregnant Women*
Weight Gain
Blood Glucose


  • Figure 1 Macronutrients intake as percentages of total energy compared with recommended criteria in the subjects.

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Dietary Patterns and Their Associations with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) in Korean Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Moon-Kyung Shin, Yoo-Sun Kim, Jung-Hyun Kim, Sung-Hoon Kim, Yuri Kim
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