J Gynecol Oncol.  2009 Sep;20(3):187-191. 10.3802/jgo.2009.20.3.187.

A case of neutrophilia related to a cytokine-producing relapsed squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix arising from the rectovaginal septum

  • 1Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chosun University School of Medicine, Gwangju, Korea.
  • 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chosun University School of Medicine, Gwangju, Korea. sjhan@chosun.ac.kr


Paraneoplastic neutrophilia caused by a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix has been seen rarely. We report a case of relapsed squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix with severe neutrophilia, rapid tumor growth and aggressive clinical course, possibly due to autocrine stimulation of cell growth by G-CSF and IL-6 without other possible causes of neutrophilia.


Squamous cell carcinoma; Uterine cervix; Paraneoplastic syndrome; G-CSF; IL-6

MeSH Terms

Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
Cervix Uteri
Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
Paraneoplastic Syndromes
Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor


  • Fig. 1 Serial monitoring data of WBC count, SCC, C-reactive protein (CRP), several cervicographic images (A, B, and E), transrectal ultrasound finding (C) and cytologic finding (D).

  • Fig. 2 Peripheral blood smear (A) and bone marrow aspiration smear (B) showed neutrophilia and reactive marrow, respectively (Wright-Giemsa stain, ×200).

  • Fig. 3 Microscopic finding of 2nd relapsed squamous cell carcinoma arising from rectovaginal septum (H-E stain, ×200 (A) and ×400 (B)).

  • Fig. 4 Results of RT-PCR assay revealed expression of mRNA of G-CSF (L1, 620 bp), G-CSF receptor (L2, 595 bp), IL-6 (L3, 408 bp), IL-6 receptor (L4, 251 bp) and GAPDH (L5, 351 bp). M, ΦX 174-Hae III digest size marker (TaKaRa Bio, Shiga, Japan).


1. Agarwala SS. Paraneoplastic syndromes. Med Clin North Am. 1996. 80:173–184.
2. Ferlito A, Elsheikh MN, Manni JJ, Rinaldo A. Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with primary head and neck cancer. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007. 264:211–222.
3. Hocking W, Goodman J, Golde D. Granulocytosis associated with tumor cell production of colony-stimulating activity. Blood. 1983. 61:600–603.
4. Kyo S, Kanaya T, Takakura M, Inoue M. A case of cervical cancer with aggressive tumor growth: possible autocrine growth stimulation by G-CSF and Il-6. Gynecol Oncol. 2000. 78:383–387.
5. Ahn HJ, Park YH, Chang YH, Park SH, Kim MS, Ryoo BY, et al. A case of uterine cervical cancer presenting with granulocytosis. Korean J Intern Med. 2005. 20:247–250.
6. Halkes CJ, Dijstelbloem HM, Eelkman Rooda SJ, Kramer MH. Extreme leukocytosis: not always leukaemia. Neth J Med. 2007. 65:248–251.
7. Kaushansky K. Lineage-specific hematopoietic growth factors. N Engl J Med. 2006. 354:2034–2045.
8. Banks RE, Forbes MA, Storr M, Higginson J, Thompson D, Raynes J, et al. The acute phase protein response in patients receiving subcutaneous IL-6. Clin Exp Immunol. 1995. 102:217–223.
9. Karnath BM, Luh JY, Suleman K, Rouan GW. Urethelial carcinoma mimicking as chronic myelogenous leukemia. Adv Stud Med. 2006. 6:331–332.
10. Symonds RP, Collingwood M, Kirwan J, Humber CE, Tierney JF, Green JA, et al. Concomitant hydroxyurea plus radiotherapy versus radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a systematic review. Cancer Treat Rev. 2004. 30:405–414.
Full Text Links
  • JGO
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2024 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr