Korean J Occup Environ Med.  2011 Sep;23(3):309-316.

Association between Cadmium and Cognitive Function in the Elderly

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea.
  • 2Institute of Environmental Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Korea. ychong1@snu.ac.kr
  • 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Korea.

Abstract


OBJECTIVES
We conducted this study to investigate the relationship between the blood concentration of cadmium and cognitive function in elderly Koreans.
METHODS
This research is a part of the Korean Elderly Environmental Panel Study (KEEPS). A total of 403 subjects were enrolled and analyzed from August 2008 through August 2010. Demographic information and medical histories were obtained using a questionnaire. Blood concentration of cadmium and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) with Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) were evaluated for each subject.
RESULTS
The mean age of subjects was 70.67 (SD 5.18, n=403) and 72% were female. The mean blood cadmium level was 1.22 microg/dl (SD 0.56), mean MMSE score was 25.12 out of 30 and mean FAQ score was 2.03 out of 30. Using linear regression analysis to estimate the relationship between blood cadmium concentration and MMSE and FAQ, we observed a significant association between log transformed values of blood cadmium levels and MMSE (p<0.002) or FAQ (p=0.005) scores. After adjusting for age, sex, level of education, alcohol consumption and smoking habits, the relationship between blood cadmium concentration and MMSE and FAQ scores ramained statistically significant (p=0.033 and 0.029, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
These results suggest that blood cadmium concentration is strongly associated with cognitive function and functional activity in the elderly.

Keyword

Cadmium; Cognitive function; Elderly

MeSH Terms

Aged
Alcohol Drinking
Cadmium
Female
Humans
Linear Models
Questionnaires
Smoke
Smoking
Cadmium
Smoke
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