Ann Lab Med.  2013 Jul;33(4):248-254. 10.3343/alm.2013.33.4.248.

Impact of Genetic Abnormalities on the Prognoses and Clinical Parameters of Patients with Multiple Myeloma

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Laboratory Medicine, Catholic Genetic Laboratory Center, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. microkim@catholic.ac.kr
  • 2Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
  • 3Catholic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Center, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
We reviewed patients with multiple myeloma (MM) in order to assess the incidence of genetic abnormalities and their associations with clinical parameters, risk groups, and prognosis.
METHODS
A total of 130 patients with MM were enrolled. The incidences of genetic abnormalities were determined in all patients. The relationships of the genetic abnormalities and clinical parameters were investigated. In addition, a survival analysis was performed.
RESULTS
Abnormal karyotypes were detected in 42.3% (N=55) of the patients, and this was increased to 63.1% (N=82) after including the results determined with interphase FISH. Hypodiploidy was observed in 7.7% (N=10) of the patients, and all were included in the group with complex karyotypes (30.8%, N=40). The 14q32 rearrangements were detected in 29.2% (N=38) of the patients, and these most commonly included t(11;14), which was followed by t(4;14) and t(14;16) (16.2%, 11.5%, and 0.8%, respectively). Abnormal karyotypes and complex karyotypes were associated with disease progression markers, including low hemoglobin levels, low platelet counts, high plasma cell burden, high beta2-microglobulin, and high international staging system stages. A high free light chain (FLC) ratio and FLC difference were associated with abnormal karyotypes, complex karyotypes, and higher plasma cell burden. Hypodiploidy and low platelet counts were significant independent prognostic factors and were more important in patient outcome than any single abnormality.
CONCLUSIONS
Genetic abnormalities were associated with disease progression markers and prognosis of MM patients.

Keyword

Multiple myeloma; Cytogenetics; Fluorescence in situ hybridization; Free light chain

MeSH Terms

Aged
*Chromosome Aberrations
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14
Female
Hemoglobins/analysis
Humans
Karyotyping
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Myeloma/*diagnosis/*genetics/mortality
Neoplasm Staging
Platelet Count
Prognosis
Proportional Hazards Models
Survival Analysis
Translocation, Genetic
Hemoglobins
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