Korean J Blood Transfus.  2011 Dec;22(3):264-270.

Immune Hemolytic Anemia after ABO-mismatched Liver Transplantation: A Case Report

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea. yuret@korea.ac.kr

Abstract

Limitations due to lack of appropriate available donors for liver transplantation necessitates the use of ABO-mismatched donors. Transplantation of ABO-mismatched solid organs is sometimes associated with the development of immune hemolytic anemia, which is caused by production of antibodies by the donor B lymphocytes in a primary or secondary immune response against the recipient's red blood cell antigens. This condition is referred to as Passenger Lymphocyte Syndrome (PLS). PLS is more frequent in heart and lung transplants than in liver and kidney transplants with incidence of PLS in liver transplantation at 30~40%. When present, PLS typically manifests 1~3 weeks after transplantation, and subsides within 3 months after symptoms are first detected. In most patients, PLS is self-limiting and exhibits mild symptoms, but in some cases PLS can be life-threatening. We report a case of immune hemolytic anemia after an ABO-mismatched liver transplantation involving a blood group O donor and a blood group A recipient, and successful treatment of the resulting PLS symptoms by transfusion of gamma-irradiated group O Red Blood Cells (RBCs) accompanied by administration of 60 mg/day of methylprednisolone for 1 week.

Keyword

Immune hemolytic anemia; Passenger lymphocyte; Liver transplantation
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