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Metformin Ameliorates Lipotoxic β-Cell Dysfunction through a Concentration-Dependent Dual Mechanism of Action

Kim HI, Lee JS, Kwak BK, Hwang WM, Kim MJ, Kim YB, Chung SS, Park KS

BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to elevated levels of free fatty acids contributes to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Although it is well known that metformin induces cellular energy depletion and a concomitant activation...
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Myricetin Protects Against High Glucose-Induced β-Cell Apoptosis by Attenuating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress via Inactivation of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5

Karunakaran U, Elumalai S, Moon JS, Jeon JH, Kim ND, Park KG, Won KC, Leem J, Lee IK

BACKGROUND: Chronic hyperglycemia has deleterious effects on pancreatic β-cell function and turnover. Recent studies support the view that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) plays a role in β-cell failure under hyperglycemic...
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Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults: A Review on Clinical Implications and Management

Pieralice , Pozzilli P

Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by a less intensive autoimmune process and a broad clinical phenotype compared to classical type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM),...
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Deficiency of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Reduces the Expression of Prohibitin and Causes β-Cell Impairment via Mitochondrial Dysregulation

Hong SW, Lee J, Kwon H, Park SE, Rhee EJ, Park CY, Oh KW, Park SW, Lee WY

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that sphingolipids may be involved in type 2 diabetes. However, the exact signaling defect through which disordered sphingolipid metabolism induces β-cell dysfunction remains unknown. The current...
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Autoimmunity and intestinal colonization by Candida albicans in patients with type 1 diabetes at the time of the diagnosis

Gürsoy S, Koçkar T, Ugan Atik , Önal Z, Önal H, Adal E

PURPOSE: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic and immune-mediated disease, which is characterized by the progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells. T1DM precipitates in genetically susceptible individuals through...
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Diabetic Ketoacidosis Following Colonoscopy in Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes: A Case Report

Choi DH, Kim BY, Jung CH, Kim CH, Kang SK, Mok JO

Fulminant type 1 diabetes is a distinct subtype of type 1 diabetes mellitus that is characterized by sudden, complete destruction of pancreatic beta cells at the disease onset. Since the...
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Pioglitazone Attenuates Palmitate-Induced Inflammation and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Pancreatic β-Cells

Hong SW, Lee J, Cho JH, Kwon H, Park SE, Rhee EJ, Park CY, Oh KW, Park SW, Lee WY

BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activator gamma (PPARγ) is a useful therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes, but its role in protecting β-cell function and viability is unclear. METHODS: To identify...
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Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes in Koreans

Kwak SH, Park KS

The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes is characterized by variable degrees of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Both genetic and environmental factors serve as etiologic factors. Recent genetic studies...
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Genetic Diseases Associated with Diabetes Mellitus

Noh J

Whereas most people with diabetes mellitus have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, there are other inherited forms of diabetes, including single-gene forms of diabetes and rare genetic syndromes. Monogenic...
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In Vitro Effect of Fatty Acids Identified in the Plasma of Obese Adolescents on the Function of Pancreatic β-Cells

Velasquez , Vasquez JS, Balcazar N

BACKGROUND: The increase in circulating free fatty acid (FFA) levels is a major factor that induces malfunction in pancreatic β-cells. We evaluated the effect of FFAs reconstituted according to the...
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Beneficial Effect of Lespedeza cuneata (G. Don) Water Extract on Streptozotocin-induced Type 1 Diabetes and Cytokine-induced Beta-cell Damage

Kim MS, Sharma BR, Rhyu DY

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of the water extract of Lespedeza cuneata (LCW) using rat insulinoma (RIN) m5F cells and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats....
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Umbilical Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Useful in Insulin Production - Another Opportunity in Cell Therapy

Sarang S, Viswanathan C

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder resulting out of T cell mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells may...
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The Glucotoxicity Protecting Effect of Ezetimibe in Pancreatic Beta Cells via Inhibition of CD36

Yoon JS, Moon JS, Kim YW, Won KC, Lee HW

Inhibition of CD36, a fatty acid transporter, has been reported to prevent glucotoxicity and ameliorate high glucose induced beta cell dysfunction. Ezetimibe is a selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor that blocks...
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Rac-mediated actin remodeling and myosin II are involved in KATP channel trafficking in pancreatic beta-cells

Han YE, Lim A, Park SH, Chang S, Lee SH, Ho WK

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor activated during metabolic stress and it regulates various enzymes and cellular processes to maintain metabolic homeostasis. We previously reported that activation of...
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Retinoic Acid-induced Differentiation of Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells into beta-Cell Lineage

Kim JH, Kim KS, Lee SW, Kim HW, Joo DJ, Kim YS, Suh H

BACKGROUNDS: Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM), an autoimmune disease, is associated with insulin deficiency due to the death of beta-cells. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are capable of tissue...
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Mitochondrial Complexes I and II Are More Susceptible to Autophagy Deficiency in Mouse beta-Cells

Kim MJ, Choi OK, Chae KS, Kim MK, Kim JH, Komatsu M, Tanaka K, Lee H, Chung SS, Kwak SH, Cho YM, Park KS, Jung HS

BACKGROUND: Damaged mitochondria are removed by autophagy. Therefore, impairment of autophagy induces the accumulation of damaged mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction in most mammalian cells. Here, we investigated mitochondrial function and...
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Decreased Insulin Secretion in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Lee YP, Lim SK, Chang JY, Jung EK, Choi YI, Oh JY, Hong Y, Sung YA, Lee H

OBJECTIVES: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects 2%-4% of the all pregnant women, and it is a major risk factor for development of type 2 DM. We performed this cross-sectional study...
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Pancreatic alpha-Cell Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes: Old Kids on the Block

Moon JS, Won KC

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been known as 'bi-hormonal disorder' since decades ago, the role of glucagon from alpha-cell has languished whereas beta-cell taking center stage. Recently, numerous findings indicate...
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Development of multifocal nodular lesions of a liver mimicking hepatic metastasis, following resection of an insulinoma in a child

Jung SY, Kang B, Choi YM, Kim JM, Kim SK, Kwon YS, Lee JE

Insulinoma, which arises from insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, is a rare tumor in children. Only 5%-10% of insulinomas are malignant and undergo metastasis. We report a case of an 11-year-old...
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Padina arborescens extract protects high glucose-induced apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells by reducing oxidative stress

Park MH, Han JS

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether Padina arborescens extract (PAE) protects INS-1 pancreatic beta cells against glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis. MATERIALS/METHODS: Assays, including cell viability, lipid peroxidation, generation of intracellular ROS, NO production, antioxidant...
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