Dement Neurocogn Disord.  2023 Jul;22(3):87-99. 10.12779/dnd.2023.22.3.87.

Association of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Perivascular Spaces and Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy in Alzheimer’s Disease: Insights From MRI Imaging

  • 1Department of Neurology, Etlik City Hospital, Ankara, Turkey


Background and Purpose
According to the amyloid cascade hypothesis, fibrillary amyloid-beta load in the brain causes Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with toxic effects. Recently, perivascular spaces (PVSs), fluid-filled cavities around small penetrating arterioles and venules in the brain, and the glymphatic system relationship with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and AD has been an important research topic from a physiopathological point of view. There are two types of PVSs that are associated with sporadic atherosclerosis and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the number and localization of enlarged PVSs in AD.
A total of 254 patients with AD and 125 healthy controls were included in this study All the patients were evaluated with neurological and cognitive examinations and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PVSs on MRI were graded by recording their number and location. The study was a retrospective study.
In our study, the number of white matter convexity-central semiovale localized PVSs was higher in patients than in the control group. In addition, the number of PVSs in this localization score was higher in patients with DM2. Cerebral PVS counts were higher in patients with AD than in the control group.
These results suggest the important role of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, one of the vascular risk factors, and the glymphatic system in the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, the results of our study suggest that the evaluation of PVSs levels, especially at the (centrum semiovale), using imaging studies in AD is a potential diagnostic option.


Perivascular Fluid Space; Glymphatic Pathway; Small Vessel Disorders; Alzheimer Disease; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
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