Clin Exp Pediatr.  2022 Dec;65(12):563-573. 10.3345/cep.2022.00374.

Epidemiology and surveillance implications of community-acquired pneumonia in children

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, Korea
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Pediatrics, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea


Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the single largest infectious cause of hospitalization and death in children worldwide. With improved immunizations, the incidence of bacterial pneumonia and the number of colonized bacteria have decreased. However, respiratory viruses are still an important cause of CAP, especially as new infectious agents such severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerge. The SARS-CoV-2 virus emerged in 2019 and caused the current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Therefore, it is necessary to elucidate the epidemiology and causative pathogens of CAP. Recently, the Pneumonia and Respiratory Disease Study Group, affiliated with the Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease, investigated the causative pathogens of respiratory infections in children hospitalized with CAP, the serotype of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae with gene mutations. Antibiotic resistance and serotype test results can determine the use of empirical antibiotics. Moreover, it is possible to help develop future vaccines by comparing bacterial culture results with vaccine serotype and identifying the changes and prevalence of each serotype. Therefore, we will perform continuous national surveillance and monitor the epidemiology of respiratory pathogens in Korea and worldwide. The surveillance of these respiratory infections can play a role in monitoring the emergence of new infectious diseases such as SARS-CoV-2.


Pneumonia; Child; Surveillance; Epidemiology; SARS-CoV-2
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