Allergy Asthma Respir Dis.  2022 Oct;10(4):189-194. 10.4168/aard.2022.10.4.189.

Smoking exposure and allergic rhinitis in children and adolescents

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Pediatrics, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Department of Pediatrics, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 5Department of Pediatrics, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Korea
  • 6Department of Pediatrics, Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi, Korea
  • 7Department of Pediatrics, CHA Gangnam Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 8Department of Pediatrics, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
  • 9Department of Pediatrics, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri, Korea
  • 10Department of Pediatrics, Yongin Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yongin, Korea
  • 11Department of Pediatrics, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea
  • 12Department of Pediatrics, Chungnam National University Sejong Hospital, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Sejong, Korea
  • 13Department of Pediatrics, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea


The prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children and adolescents is constantly increasing. However, few studies exist on the relationship between smoking and allergic rhinitis. In addition to conventional cigarettes, electronic and heated cigarettes have recently been introduced, which have several harmful effects. It is hypothesized that smoking and rhinitis are correlated; however, this relationship is complex. Previous studies reported that exposure to smoking during pregnancy is associated with allergic rhinitis development. Unlike the varied results reported in adults, studies on children and adolescents have often correlated direct/indirect smoke with allergic rhinitis, with prolonged exposure being associated with a higher risk of allergic rhinitis, particularly when exposed at an early age. Nonallergic inflammatory reactions and immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic sensitization are assumed to be the underlying mechanisms for the association between allergic rhinitis and smoking. Measures to reduce smoking are warranted to lower the incidence of allergic rhinitis in children and adolescents and to improve their health.


Allergic rhinitis; Tobacco smoking; Child
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