Nutr Res Pract.  2022 Oct;16(5):616-627. 10.4162/nrp.2022.16.5.616.

Dietary intake and major source foods of vitamin E among Koreans: findings of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2016–2019

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea
  • 2Department of Food and Nutrition, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Korea
  • 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea
  • 4Nutrition Information Center, Korean Nutrition Society, Seoul 04376, Korea
  • 5Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dongseo University, Busan 47011, Korea

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES
Vitamin E is essential for health, and although vitamin E deficiency seems rare in humans, studies on estimates of dietary intake are lacking. This study aimed to estimate dietary vitamin E intake, evaluate dietary adequacy of vitamin E, and detail major food sources of vitamin E in the Korean population.
SUBJECTS/METHODS
This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2016–2019. Individuals aged ≥ 1 year that participated in a nutrition survey (n = 28,418) were included. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-h recall and individual dietary vitamin E intake was estimated using a newly established vitamin E database. Dietary adequacy was evaluated by comparing dietary intake with adequate intake (AI) as defined by Korean Dietary Reference Intakes 2020.
RESULTS
For all study subjects, mean daily total vitamin E intake was 7.00 mg α-tocopherol equivalents, which was 61.6% of AI. The proportion of individuals that consumed vitamin E at above the AI was 12.9%. Inadequate intake was observed more in females, older individuals, rural residents, and those with a low income. Mean daily intakes of tocopherol (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-forms) and tocotrienol were 6.02, 0.30, 6.19, 1.63, and 1.61 mg, respectively. The major food groups that contributed to total dietary vitamin E intake were grains (22.3%), seasonings (17.0%), vegetables (15.3%), and fish, and shellfish (7.4%). The top 5 individual food items that contributed to total vitamin E intake were baechu kimchi, red pepper powder, eggs, soybean oil, and rice.
CONCLUSIONS
This study shows that mean dietary vitamin E intake by Koreans did not meet the reference adequate intake value. To better understand the status of vitamin E intake, further research is needed that considers intake from dietary supplements.

Keyword

Vitamin E; tocopherols; tocotrienols; dietary intake; NHANES

Figure

  • Fig. 1 Contributions of food groups to dietary total vitamin E intakes of Koreans aged ≥ 1 yr.


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