J Nutr Health.  2019 Oct;52(5):422-434. 10.4163/jnh.2019.52.5.422.

The food and nutrient intakes from daily processed food in Korean adults: based on the 6(th) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2013 ~ 2015)

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Food Science and Nutrition & Natural Nutraceuticals Industrization Research Center, Dankook University, Chungnam 31116, Korea.
  • 2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University, Chungnam 31116, Korea. wkkim@dankook.ac.kr

Abstract

PURPOSE
The consumption of processed foods has recently been increasing due to changes in the living environment. The purpose of this study was to identify the contribution of processed food to the nutrient intake of adult Koreans.
METHODS
A total of 15,760 adult people in the 6(th) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013 ~ 2015) were included in this study. According to the Korea Food and Drug Administration's classification criteria for processed foods, the 24 hour dietary recall data of the subjects were classified as processed food or natural food. The processed food intake, nutrient intake and major processed food sources by food groups were analyzed.
RESULTS
Men consumed more processed foods than did the women. Consumption of processed foods decreased with age, but it increased with the education level and the income level. The total daily processed food intake accounted for 68.1% of the total food intake. The food groups with high processed food intake were beverage, vegetables, cereals and grain products, fruits, and milk and dairy products in this order. The top food source of each food groups were beer, kimchi, bread, processed apple products, and milk. After adjusting for age, gender, and energy intake, all the nutrient intakes and percentage of dietary reference intakes for Koreans, except carbohydrates, were significantly higher in processed foods than in natural foods. The sodium intake from the processed food was 96.3% of total daily sodium intake. The intakes of nutrients from processed foods, excluding vitamins C, dietary fiber, iron, and vitamin A, were higher in men than in women. The intake of sodium from processed foods was highest for people of 30 ~ 49 years of age, and the intake of sodium from processed foods decreased for people over 50.
CONCLUSION
Korean adults consumed more processed food than the natural food, consuming more calories and most of the nutrients from the processed food overall total daily intakes. The intake of processed foods is expected to further increase in the future, and nutritional education and research on the ingestion and selection of healthy processed foods are necessary.

Keyword

processed food; food group; nutrient; food source; intake

MeSH Terms

Adult*
Beer
Beverages
Bread
Carbohydrates
Classification
Dairy Products
Dietary Fiber
Eating
Edible Grain
Education
Energy Intake
Female
Fruit
Humans
Iron
Korea*
Male
Milk
Nutrition Surveys*
Recommended Dietary Allowances
Sodium
Vegetables
Vitamin A
Vitamins
Carbohydrates
Iron
Sodium
Vitamin A
Vitamins
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