Allergy Asthma Respir Dis.  2022 Apr;10(2):73-79. 10.4168/aard.2022.10.2.73.

Risk factors and protective factors in pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, Chungnam National University Sejong Hospital, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Sejong, Korea
  • 3Department of Pediatrics, Asthma and Allergy Center, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea
  • 5Department of Pediatrics, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Korea
  • 6Department of Pediatrics, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 7Department of Pediatrics, Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi, Korea
  • 8Department of Pediatrics, CHA Gangnam Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 9Department of Pediatrics, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
  • 10Department of Pediatrics, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri, Korea
  • 11Department of Pediatrics, Yongin Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yongin, Korea
  • 12Department of Pediatrics, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea
  • 13Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea


Among allergic diseases of the Korean pediatric population, allergic rhinitis shows the most rapidly increasing prevalence. Its economic burden is substantial in many Asian countries including South Korea. This investigation of its risk factors aims to reduce the socioeconomic burden by blocking exposure of susceptible individuals to identified causes. However, the risk factors of allergic rhinitis varied considerably depending on the seasons, geographical locations, and populations involved. This review article primarily deals with studies on the risk factors for allergic rhinitis in Korean children that were published during the last 10 years and additionally investigates associated large scale international studies. Our investigation identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms, inhalant allergens, pollution, tobacco smoke, chemicals, and family affluence as risk factors for allergic rhinitis. In contrast, breastfeeding, older sibling, and microbial diversity were protective factors against allergic rhinitis. This suggests that various genetic and environmental factors might affect the manifestation and presentation of allergic rhinitis complexly. These findings are beneficial as they can provide insights into modifiable risk factors that may hinder the development of allergic rhinitis.


Allergic rhinitis; Risk factors; Pediatric patients; Protective factors
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