Korean J Health Promot.  2020 Dec;20(4):182-193. 10.15384/kjhp.2020.20.4.182.

Association between Dietary Carbohydrate Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors According to Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Korean Adults

  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Hannam University, Daejeon, Korea
  • 2Department of Food Service and Nutrition Care, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Korea


Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease, resulting in the promotion of low-fat diets that emphasize the need to lower LDL cholesterol levels. We investigated the relationship between dietary carbohydrate intake and cardiovascular risk factors according to LDL cholesterol levels in Korean adults who typically consumed high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets.
A total of 25,925 Korean adults were selected from the 2007-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Dietary carbohydrate intake was grouped into quintiles and cardiovascular risk factors included obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine association between carbohydrate intake and cardiovascular risk factors by sex and LDL cholesterol levels.
Subjects with LDL cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL had significantly less energy and fat intake than those with LDL cholesterol <130 mg/dL both in men and women. In men, a higher carbohydrate intake was related to increased prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol regardless of LDL cholesterol levels. Meanwhile, dietary carbohydrate intake was positively associated with low HDL cholesterol but inversely associated with hypercholesterolemia only in women with LDL cholesterol <130 mg/dL.
High carbohydrate intake in Korean adults is associated with low HDL cholesterol or atherogenic dyslipidemia regardless of LDL cholesterol levels. Carbohydrate intake should be carefully recommended according to the lipid profiles of individuals for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease.


Dietary carbohydrates; Dyslipidemias; Cardiovascular diseases; Cholesterol; LDL
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