Tissue Eng Regen Med.  2020 Apr;17(2):155-163. 10.1007/s13770-019-00234-7.

Attenuation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Induced Inflammation by Umbilical Cord-Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosome-Mimetic Nanovesicles in Endothelial Cells

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, 335 Pangyo-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, 13488, Republic of Korea

Abstract

Background
Inflammation induces dysfunction of endothelial cells via inflammatory cell adhesion, and this phenomenon and reactive oxygen species accumulation are pivotal triggers for atherosclerosis-related vascular disease. Although exosomes are excellent candidate as an inhibitor in the inflammation pathway, it is necessary to develop exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (NVs) due to limitations of extremely low release rate and difficult isolation of natural exosomes. NVs are produced in much larger quantities than natural exosomes, but due to the low flexibility of the cell membranes, the high loss caused by hanging on the filter membranes during extrusion remains a challenge to overcome. Therefore, by making cell membranes more flexible, more efficient production of NVs can be expected.
Methods
To increase the flexibility of the cell membranes, the suspension of umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) was subjected to 5 freeze and thaw cycles (FT) before serial extrusion. After serial extrusion through membranes with three different pore sizes, FT/NVs were isolated using a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system. NVs or FT/NVs were pretreated to the human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs), and then inflammation was induced using tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).
Results
With the freeze and thaw process, the production yield of exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (FT/NVs) was about 3 times higher than the conventional production method. The FT/NVs have similar biological properties as NVs for attenuating TNF-α induced inflammation.
Conclusion
We proposed the efficient protocol for the production of NVs with UC-MSCs using the combination of freeze and thaw process with a TFF system. The FT/NVs successfully attenuated the TNF-α induced inflammation in HCAECs.

Keyword

Exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (NVs); Freeze and thaw (FT) procedure; Anti-inflammation; Endothelial cell; TNF-α
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