Allergy Asthma Respir Dis.  2020 Oct;8(4):231-236. 10.4168/aard.2020.8.4.231.

Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease in a 16-year-old female patient with bronchiectasis

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 3Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 4Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon, Korea.

Abstract

Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease generally occurs in old people with underlying lung disease. However, unlike adults, NTM infections in children with normal immunity are rare, and they occasionally manifest as lymphadenitis. We herein present a rare case of NTM pulmonary disease in a girl who is the youngest patient reported in Korea. A 16-year-old female was brought to the hospital because of dyspnea on exertion, fever, and productive cough. The patient had bronchiectasis. She underwent Fontan operation for right isomerism, double outlet right ventricle, pulmonary stenosis, and had been taking prophylactic antibiotics for asplenia. NTM were found in the sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by acid fast bacillus (AFB) staining and culture, which were identified as Mycobacterium avium. The treatment started with azithromycin, ethambutol and rifampicin. After 6 months of treatment, respiratory symptoms improved and the sputum AFB culture became negative. She is currently on medication with above-mentioned drugs for 10 months without any adverse effects. This case suggests that NTM pulmonary disease should be suspected and properly treated especially in children and adolescents with underlying lung disease.

Keyword

Nontuberculous mycobacteria; Adolescent; Bronchiectasis
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