Knee Surg Relat Res.  2020 Mar;32(1):e12. 10.1186/s43019-020-0029-8.

Effect of chronic kidney disease on outcomes of total joint arthroplasty: a meta-analysis

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, 75, Bokji-ro, Busanjin-gu, Busan, 47392, Republic of Korea
  • 2Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  • 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea
  • 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea Seung Joon Rhee

Abstract

Background
This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the differences in preoperative comorbidities, postoperative mortality, the rate of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), and revision rate after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) between patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)(CKD group) and patients with normal kidney function (non-CKD group).
Methods
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for studies assessing the effect of CKD on TJA outcome. This meta-analysis included studies that (1) compared the outcomes of TJA between the CKD and non-CKD groups; (2) compared the outcomes of TJA based on CKD stage; and (3) evaluated the risk factors for morbidity or mortality after TJA. We compared the mortality, PJI, and revision rate between CKD and non-CKD groups, and between dialysis-dependent patients (dialysis group) and non-dialysis-dependent patients (non-dialysis group).
Results
Eighteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. In most studies that assessed preoperative comorbidities, the number and severity of preoperative comorbidities were reported to be higher in the CKD group than in the non-CKD group. The risk of mortality was found to be higher in the CKD and dialysis groups compared with the respective control groups. In the studies based on administrative data, the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of PJI was significantly higher in the CKD group than in the non-CKD group; however, no significant difference between the groups was noted in the adjusted OR. After total hip arthroplasty (THA), the risk of PJI was higher in the dialysis group than in the non-dialysis group. No significant difference was noted between the groups in the rate of PJI following total knee arthroplasty. The revision rate did not significantly differ between the CKD and non-CKD groups in the studies that were based on administrative data. However, the unadjusted OR was significantly higher in the dialysis group than in the non-dialysis group.
Conclusions
Preoperative comorbidities and mortality risk were higher in the CKD and dialysis groups than in their respective control groups. The risk of revision was greater in the dialysis group than in the non-dialysis group, and the risk of PJI in the dialysis group became even greater after THA. Surgeons should perform careful preoperative risk stratification and optimization for patients with CKD scheduled to undergo TJA.

Keyword

Chronic kidney disease; Dialysis; Arthroplasty; Outcomes,; Morbidity; Mortality
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