Korean J Parasitol.  2020 Aug;58(4):467-473. 10.3347/kjp.2020.58.4.467.

Larval Gnathostomes and Spargana in Chinese Edible Frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus, from Myanmar: Potential Risk of Human Infection

  • 1Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Korea Association of Health Promotion, Seoul 07649, Korea
  • 2Department of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea
  • 3Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 06974, Korea
  • 4National Health Laboratory, Yangon 11191, Myanmar
  • 5Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju 52727, Korea


Chinese edible frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus, were examined to estimate the potential risks of human gnathostomiasis and sparganosis in Myanmar. A total of 20 frogs were purchased in a local market of Yangon and examined with naked eyes and the artificial digestion method after skin peeling in June 2018 and June 2019. Larvae of gnathostomes and Spirometra (=spargana) were detected in 15 (75.0%) and 15 (75.0%) frogs with average intensities of 10.5 and 6.3 larvae per infected frog, respectively. Gnathostome larvae were 2.75-3.80 (av. 3.30) mm long and 0.29-0.36 (0.33) mm wide. They had a characteristic head bulb with 4 rows of hooklets, a muscular long esophagus, and 2 pairs of cervical sac. The mean number of hooklets were 41, 44, 47, and 50 on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th row, respectively. Collected spargana were actively moving, particularly with the scolex part, and have ivory-white color and variable in size. Conclusively, it has been first confirmed that Chinese edible frogs, H. rugulosus, are highly infected with larval gnathostomes and spargana in this study. Consuming these frogs is considered a potential risk of human gnathostomiasis and sparganosis in Myanmar.


; sp.; advanced 3rd stage larvae; sparganum; Myanmar
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