Clin Should Elbow.  2020 Sep;23(3):136-143. 10.5397/cise.2020.00199.

Comparison between minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis and the deltopectoral approach with allogenous fibular bone graft in proximal humeral fractures

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yeson Hospital, Bucheon, Korea
  • 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea

Abstract

Background
Both allogenous fibular bone graft and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis have been developed to reduce issues such as fixation failure, displacement, angulation, and nonunion after plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures. However, there have been no studies investigating the differences in clinical results between these methods. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical differences between open reduction and plate fixation via a deltopectoral approach with allogenous fibular bone graft and a minimally invasive approach, in Neer's classification two-, three-part proximal humeral fractures.
Methods
In this retrospective study, 77 patients with Neer classification two-, three-part proximal humeral fractures were treated at two different institutions. Clinical and radiological evaluations were performed in 39 patients who underwent minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis at one institution (group A) and 38 patients who underwent the deltopectoral approach with allogenous fibular bone graft at another institution (group B). The results between the groups were compared.
Results
The minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis procedure (group A) was significantly less time- consuming and caused less bleeding than allogenous fibular bone graft through a deltopectoral approach (group B) (P<0.05). The duration of the fracture union was significantly reduced in group A (14.5±3.4 weeks; range, 10–22 weeks) compared to group B (16.4±4.3 weeks; range, 12–28 weeks) (P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups when evaluating the visual analog scale and Constant scores 1 year postoperatively. Radiological evaluation including neck-shaft angle and plate height were measured on the final follow-up X-ray image. There was no difference in radiological outcomes between the two groups. There were no statistically significant differences in malunion between the two groups; there were three malunion cases (7.7%) in group A and four (10.5%) in group B.
Conclusions
The minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis procedure and deltopectoral approach with allogenous fibula bone graft for Neer's classification two-, three-part proximal humeral fractures demonstrated similar clinical and radiological results. However, allogenous fibula grafts require longer surgery, cause more bleeding, and result in longer fracture healing time than the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis procedure.

Keyword

Proximal humeral fractures; MIPO; Delto-pectoral approach; Fibular allograft
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