Immune Netw.  2020 Aug;20(4):e31. 10.4110/in.2020.20.e31.

Adjuvanticity of Processed Aloe vera gel for Influenza Vaccination in Mice

  • 1Department of Pharmacy, Korea University College of Pharmacy, Sejong 30019, Korea
  • 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea
  • 3Division of Viral Disease Research, Center for Infectious Disease Research, National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cheongju 28159, Korea
  • 4Univera Co., Ltd., Seoul 04782, Korea
  • 5Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea


The effectiveness of current influenza vaccines is considered suboptimal, and 1 way to improve the vaccines is using adjuvants. However, the current pool of adjuvants used in influenza vaccination is limited due to safety concerns. Aloe vera, or aloe, has been shown to have immunomodulatory functions and to be safe for oral intake. In this study, we explored the potential of orally administered processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) as an adjuvant for influenza vaccines in C57BL/6 mice. We first evaluated its adjuvanticity with a split-type pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) Ag by subjecting the mice to lethal homologous influenza challenge. Oral PAG administration with the pH1N1 Ag increased survival rates in mice to levels similar to those of alum and MF59, which are currently used as adjuvants in influenza vaccine formulations. Similarly, oral PAG administration improved the survival of mice immunized with a commercial trivalent influenza vaccine against lethal homologous and heterologous virus challenge. PAG also increased hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralization Ab titers against homologous and heterologous influenza strains following immunization with the split-type pH1N1 Ag or the commercial trivalent vaccine. Therefore, this study demonstrates that PAG may potentially be used as an adjuvant for influenza vaccines.


Aloe vera; Influenza A virus; Influenza B virus; Vaccines; Immunological adjuvant
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