J Dent Anesth Pain Med.  2020 Aug;20(4):195-202. 10.17245/jdapm.2020.20.4.195.

Optimal effect-site concentration of remifentanil to prevent hemodynamic changes during nasotracheal intubation using a video laryngoscope

  • 1Department of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Dental Research Institute, Yangsan, Republic of Korea
  • 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Centre, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  • 3Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Republic of Korea
  • 4Department of Integrated Biological Science, Pusan National University, Geumjeong-gu, Busan, Republic of Korea
  • 5Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon, Republic of Korea


Nasotracheal intubation is the most commonly used method to secure the field of view when performing surgery on the oral cavity or neck. Like orotracheal intubation, nasotracheal intubation uses a laryngoscope. Hemodynamic change occurs due to the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Recently, video laryngoscope with a camera attached to the end of the direct laryngoscope blade has been used to minimize this change. In this study, we investigated the optimal effect-site concentration (Ce) of remifentanil for minimizing hemodynamic responses during nasotracheal intubation with a video laryngoscope.
Twenty-one patients, aged between 19 and 60 years old, scheduled for elective surgery were included in this study. Anesthesia was induced by slowly injecting propofol. At the same time, remifentanil infusion was initiated at 3.0 ng/ml via target-controlled infusion (TCI). When remifentanil attained the preset Ce, nasotracheal intubation was performed using a video laryngoscope. The patient's blood pressure and heart rate were checked pre-induction, right before and after intubation, and 1 min after intubation. Hemodynamic stability was defined as an increase in systolic blood pressure and heart rate by 20% before and after nasotracheal intubation. The response of each patient determined the Ce of remifentanil for the next patient at an interval of 0.3 ng/ml.
The Ce of remifentanil administered ranged from 2.4 to 3.6 ng/ml for the patients evaluated. The estimated optimal effective effect-site concentrations of remifentanil were 3.22 and 4.25 ng/ml, that were associated with a 50% and 95% probability of maintaining hemodynamic stability, respectively.
Nasotracheal intubation using a video laryngoscope can be successfully performed in a hemodynamically stable state by using the optimal remifentanil effect-site concentration (Ce50 , 3.22 ng/ml; Ce95 , 4.25 ng/ml).


Effect-Site Concentration; Nasotracheal Intubation; Remifentanil; Video Laryngoscopes
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