Korean J Parasitol.  2020 Feb;58(1):7-14. 10.3347/kjp.2020.58.1.7.

4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde Restricts the Intracellular Growth of Toxoplasma gondii by Inducing SIRT1-Mediated Autophagy in Macrophages

  • 1Department of Infection Biology and Medical Science, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 35015, Korea
  • 2Infection Control Convergence Research Center, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 35015, Korea
  • 3Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 56212, Korea
  • 4Department of Food Science and Technology, Kongju National University, Yesan 32439, Korea


Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects approximately one third of the human popu- lation worldwide. Considering the toxicity and side effects of anti-toxoplasma medications, it is important to develop effec- tive drug alternatives with fewer and less severe off-target effects. In this study, we found that 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4- HBA) induced autophagy and the expression of NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) in primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Interestingly, treatment of BMDMs with 4-HBA significantly reduced the number of macrophages infected with T. gondii and the proliferation of T. gondii in infected cells. This effect was impaired by pretreating the macrophages with 3-methyladenine or wortmannin (selective autophagy inhibitors) or with sirtinol or EX527 (SIRT1 inhibitors). Moreover, we found that pharmacological inhibition of SIRT1 prevented 4-HBA-mediated expres- sion of LC3-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate (LC3-II) and the colocalization of T. gondii parasitophorous vacuoles with autophagosomes in BMDMs. These data suggest that 4-HBA promotes antiparasitic host responses by activating SIRT1- mediated autophagy, and 4-HBA might be a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of toxoplasmosis.


toxoplasmosis; autophagy; sirtinol; 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde; NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-1; LC3-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate
Full Text Links
  • KJP
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2024 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr