J Korean Acad Oral Health.  2020 Mar;44(1):7-12. 10.11149/jkaoh.2020.44.1.7.

Effects of some commercial calamansi-containing beverages on the enamel surface

  • 1Department of Preventive & Public Health Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea. ssjeong0@gmail.com
  • 2Department of General Education, Kwangju Women's University, Gwangju, Korea.
  • 3Department of Dental Hygiene, Honam University, Gwangju, Korea.


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of some commercial calamansicontaining beverages on the sound surface of bovine teeth as well as the dental erosion inhibitory effects of calcium.
The pH and titratable acidity of six kinds of commercially available calamansi beverages were determined. Further, 3% calcium was added to the calamansi beverage Oranssi in the experimental group to confirm its dental erosion inhibitory effect. Jeju Samdasoo was used in the negative control group and Coca-Cola in the positive control group. After immersing the sound teeth specimens for 10 min, surface microhardness was measured using the Vickers hardness number (VHN), and surface changes in specimens were observed under a scanning electron microscope.
The average pH of the commercial calamansi beverages was 2.54±0.22. After 10 min of treatment with each experimental beverage, the surface hardness difference (ΔVHN) was highest in the Coca-Cola group (−49.05±12.59), followed by the Oranssi calamansi group (−43.77±13.70), 3% calcium-added Oranssi calamansi group (−2.71±12.58), and Samdasoo group (14.03±20.79). There was no significant difference between the bottled water and calcium-added Oranssi calamansi groups or between the Coca-Cola and Oranssi calamansi groups (P>0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the surface hardness between the bottled water and CocaCola groups (P<0.05). On scanning electron microscopy, the Samdasoo group showed a smooth surface without any loss, but Coca-Cola and Oranssi calamansi groups showed a rough surface due to erosion. However, although fine cracks and porosities were seen in the calcium-added Oranssi calamansi group, surfaces in the group were much smoother than those in the Oranssi calamansi group.
Calamansi beverages of low pH may cause corrosion of the tooth surface, and the addition of calcium to the calamansi beverages inhibits demineralization of the tooth surface. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the risk of dental erosion when drinking calamansi beverages of low pH.


Beverage; Calamansi; Calcium; Dental erosion
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