J Vet Sci.  2019 May;20(3):e29. 10.4142/jvs.2019.20.e29.

Needleless intradermal vaccination for foot-and-mouth disease induced granuloma-free effective protection in pigs

  • 1Center for Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) Vaccine Research, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Korea. parkjhvet@korea.kr
  • 2Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.


Vaccination is one of the most effective ways of controlling and preventing foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks. The effective prevention of this disease requires the use of high-quality vaccines to meet the criteria that enable customers to use them simply. The administration of FMD vaccines containing oil-based adjuvants in pigs can induce the formation of granuloma in the muscle of the vaccinated, which makes these vaccines a less preferable option. Therefore, it is important to establish an FMD vaccine and vaccine delivery tool that offers better immunity and safer application. This study compared the immune responses of intramuscular and needleless intradermal vaccination in pigs. When the same amount of an FMD virus (FMDV) antigen was administered to pigs, both the intradermally and intramuscularly vaccinated groups were protected completely against a challenge of the homologous FMDV, but the intramuscularly vaccinated group showed an overall higher level of neutralizing antibodies. Importantly, the formation of granuloma in muscle could be excluded in the intradermally vaccinated group. Of the oil-based adjuvants selected in this study, ISA 207 was effective in eliciting immunogenicity in intradermal vaccination. In conclusion, a new vaccine formula can be chosen for the delivery of intradermal route to exclude the possibility of local reactions in the muscle and generate protective immunity against an FMDV challenge.


FMD; vaccine; needleless; intradermal route; protection
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