Saf Health Work.  2019 Mar;10(1):47-53. 10.1016/

Lung Function of Grain Millers Exposed to Grain Dust and Diesel Exhaust in Two Food Markets in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria

  • 1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.


Despite growing concern over occupational exposure to particulate matter (PM) such as grain dust and diesel exhaust, information about the exposure level and health implications among workers in small-scale milling enterprises in developing countries like Nigeria has not been adequately documented. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of exposure to grain dust and diesel exhaust and effect on lung function among grain millers in food markets in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria.
The study adopted descriptive cross-sectional design with a comparative approach. Sixteen grain milling shops each were randomly selected from two major food markets in Ibadan metropolis for indoor PM₁₀ and PM(2.5) monitoring. Seventy-two respondents each were proportionately selected from grain millers and shop owners for forced expiratory volume in one second and peak expiratory flow rate tests.
The PM(2.5) concentrations for both market locations ranged between 1,269.3 and 651.7 Î¼g/m³, while PM₁₀ concentrations were between 1,048.2 and 818.1 Î¼g/m³. The recorded concentrations exceeded the World Health Organization guideline limit of 50 Î¼g/m³ and 25 Î¼g/m³ for PM(2.5) and PM₁₀, respectively. As compared with control group (2.1 L), significantly lower forced expiratory volume in one second value (1.61 L) was observed among the exposed group (p < 0.05). Likewise, significantly lower peak expiratory flow rate value (186.7 L/min) was recorded among the exposed group than the control group (269.51 L/min) (p < 0.05).
Exposure to grain dust and diesel exhaust accentuated respiratory disorders with declines in lung functions amongst grain millers. Improved milling practices and engaging cleaner milling facilities should be adopted to minimize exposure and related hazards.


Forced expiratory volume in one second; Particulate matter; Peak expiratory flow rate; Small-scale milling enterprises

MeSH Terms

Developing Countries
Forced Expiratory Volume
Occupational Exposure
Particulate Matter
Peak Expiratory Flow Rate
Surveys and Questionnaires
Vehicle Emissions*
World Health Organization
Particulate Matter
Vehicle Emissions
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