J Korean Diet Assoc.  2014 May;20(2):133-148.

Relations of Whole Grain Consumption with Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Factors among Korean Adults

  • 1Nutrition Education Major, Graduate School, Sungshin Women's University, Seoul 142-732, Korea.
  • 2Department of Food and Nutrition, Sungshin Women's University, Seoul 142-732, Korea. smlee@sungshin.ac.kr


This study compared levels of whole grain consumption-related predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors according to socio-demographic variables, and examined how these factors are associated with whole grain consumption frequency among Korean adults. A survey questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of adult males and females aged 20~59 years (n=300). The questionnaire included questions on predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors in relation to whole grain consumption as well as a brief whole grain food frequency questionnaire. Female subjects showed a significantly higher level of negative beliefs on health.nutrition.taste.texture while showing a significantly lower level of social support compared to that of males. The age group of 40~59 years showed a significantly higher social support level than the age group of 20~39 years. Results from multivariate regression analyses showed that different combinations of predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling variables were significant in predicting whole grain consumption frequency according to sex and age. The study findings can be used for developing specific target-oriented nutrition intervention programs for promotion of whole grain intake among Korean adults.


whole grain consumption; predisposing factor; enabling factor; reinforcing factor

MeSH Terms

Edible Grain*
Surveys and Questionnaires
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