J Adv Prosthodont.  2019 Apr;11(2):81-87. 10.4047/jap.2019.11.2.81.

Effects of different finishing/polishing protocols and systems for monolithic zirconia on surface topography, phase transformation, and biofilm formation

  • 1Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, ITRD, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. deweylee@knu.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
  • 3Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various protocols and systems for finishing and polishing monolithic zirconia on surface topography, phase transformation, and bacterial adhesion.
Three hundred monolithic zirconia specimens were fabricated and then treated with three finishing and polishing systems (Jota [JO], Meisinger [ME], and Edenta [ED]) using four surface treatment protocols: coarse finishing alone (C); coarse finishing and medium polishing (CM); coarse finishing and fine polishing (CF); and coarse finishing, medium polishing, and fine polishing (CMF). Surface roughness, crystal phase transformation, and bacterial adhesion were evaluated using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and streptococcal biofilm formation assay, respectively. One-way and two-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc tests were used to analyze the results (α=.05).
In this study, the surface treatment protocols and systems had significant effects on the resulting roughness. The CMF protocol produced the lowest roughness values, followed by CM and CF. Use of the JO system produced the lowest roughness values and the smallest biofilm mass, while the ME system produced the smallest partial transformation ratio. The ED group exhibited the highest roughness values, biofilm mass, and partial transformation ratio.
Stepwise surface treatment of monolithic zirconia, combined with careful polishing system selection, is essential to obtaining optimal microstructural and biological surface results.


Zirconia; Dental finishing; Dental polishing; Roughness; Biofilm
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