Korean J Parasitol.  2018 Oct;56(5):477-485. 10.3347/kjp.2018.56.5.477.

Analysis of Five Arboviruses and Culicoides Distribution on Cattle Farms in Jeollabuk-do, Korea

Affiliations
  • 1College of Veterinary Medicine and Korea Zoonosis Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea. bskims@jbnu.ac.kr
  • 2Animal Disease Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Korea.

Abstract

Arthropod-borne viruses (Arboviruses) are transmitted by arthropods such as Culicoides biting midges and cause abortion, stillbirth, and congenital malformation in ruminants, apparently leading to economic losses to farmers. To monitor the distribution of Culicoides and to determine their relationship with different environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, wind speed, and altitude of the farms) on 5 cattle farms, Culicoides were collected during summer season (May-September) in 2016 and 2017, and analyzed for identification of species and detection of arboviruses. About 35% of the Culicoides were collected in July and the collection rate increased with increase in temperature and humidity. The higher altitude where the farms were located, the more Culicoides were collected on inside than outside. In antigen test of Culicoides against 5 arboviruses, only Chuzan virus (CHUV) (2.63%) was detected in 2016. The Akabane virus (AKAV), CHUV, Ibaraki virus and Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) had a positive rate of less than 1.8% in 2017. In antigen test of bovine whole blood, AKAV (12.96%) and BEFV (0.96%) were positive in only one of the farms. As a result of serum neutralization test, antibodies against AKAV were generally measured in all the farms. These results suggest that vaccination before the season in which the Culicoides are active is probably best to prevent arbovirus infections.

Keyword

Culicoides biting midges; arbovirus; akabane virus; cattle; Korea
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