Korean J Community Nutr.  2018 Oct;23(5):411-423. 10.5720/kjcn.2018.23.5.411.

Development of a Food Exchange Table and Food Pattern for Nutritionally Balanced Menu Planning

  • 1Health & Nutrition Research Center, Corporate Technology Office, Pulmuone Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea, Senior Researcher.
  • 2Corporate Technology Office, Pulmuone Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea, Director.
  • 3Corporate Technology Office, Pulmuone Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea, Head.
  • 4Health & Nutrition Research Center, Corporate Technology Office, Pulmuone Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea, Head. ksnama@pulmuone.com


OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop new meal planning tools for a nutritionally balanced diet.
Based on the food exchange list for diabetes, we adjusted the food group classification system to reflect the suggested nutritional factors for chronic disease prevention and health promotion. We developed a nutritionally balanced dietary profile for adults and compared it with the dietary reference intakes for Koreans (KDRIs) and the food pattern recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association.
The newly developed menu planning tools are the LOHAS food exchange table and the LOHAS food pattern. Our recommended daily 1,800 kcal dietary composition for adults is as follows: The carbohydrate food group consists of 4 ‘whole grains’, 3 ‘refined grains’, 2 ‘sugars’, 9 ‘vegetables’, 3 ‘starchy vegetables’, 2 ‘fruits’ and 1 ‘high sugar fruits’. The protein food group includes 3 ‘plant protein foods’, 3 ‘animal protein foods (low-fat)’, and 1 ‘animal protein foods (high-fat)’. The fat food group consists of 2 ‘oils and nuts’ and 1 ‘solid fats’. The total number of calories is estimated at 1,840 kcal and the energy ratio is 62% carbohydrate, 18% protein, 20% fat, 6.8% saturated fat and 13.2% sugars. Using the LOHAS food exchange table, it is possible to estimate values of saturated fat, unsaturated fat, dietary fiber, and sugars besides carbohydrate, protein and fat. It is also possible to compose a dietary design considering carbohydrate, sugars, saturated fat and dietary fiber. The LOHAS food pattern provides benefits for the management of both institutional food services and individual meals, as it can help reduce the levels of saturated fat and sugar intake and help develop healthy meals rich in unsaturated fats and dietary fiber.
The LOHAS food exchange table and LOHAS food pattern are expected to be practical tools for designing and evaluating nutritionally balanced diets.


food exchange list; food group; menu plan
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