Allergy Asthma Respir Dis.  2018 Jul;6(4):197-205. 10.4168/aard.2018.6.4.197.

Relation of allergic rhinitis, allergen sensitization, and air pollutants in preschool children

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics and Respiratory Disease Center, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, Korea. holydaywoo@hanmail.net

Abstract

PURPOSE
We aimed to investigate the prevalence and allergen sensitization of allergic rhinitis (AR) in preschool children. We assessed the relationship of AR, allergen sensitization, and air pollutants.
METHODS
Between 2012 and 2016 in Jincheon, skin prick testing and questionnaire survey were performed on 2,958 children. AR have diagnosed on the basis of current symptoms and sign of AR on the Korean International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and 1 or more proven allergen sensitization.
RESULTS
A total of 2,052 children completed survey and skin prick testing, and were included in the analysis. The prevalence of AR symptom within last 12 months and AR were 27.0% and 10.9%, respectively. During study, both prevalences were increased from 20.1% and 8.6%, respectively in 2012 to 29.1% and 12.8%, respectively in 2016. The total inhalant allergen sensitization rate was 32.6%. The most common inhalant allergen was Dermatophagoides farinae (23.1%), followed by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (22.5%), tree pollens (5.3%), weed pollens (5.2%), fungi (4.7%), dog hair (4.5%) cat fur (3.6%), grass pollens (1.1%), and cockroach (0.8%). Although there was no difference tree or weed pollen sensitization, pollen seasonal prevalence of current AR symptoms is highest in spring (80%) versus autumn (52.3%). Seasonal PM10 (particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 µm in diameter) and SO2 (sulfur dioxide) levels were correlated with the prevalence of seasonal AR symptoms. Pollen seasonal current AR symptoms were significantly related to seasonal pollen sensitization, but not inhalant allergens including dust mites.
CONCLUSION
There was a rapid increasing prevalence of AR in preschool children in the areas of urbanization and industrialization. Pollen seasonal current AR symptoms have a close relationship with PM10 and seasonal pollen sensitization.

Keyword

Allergic rhinitis; Child; Allergen; Air pollutant
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