J Vet Sci.  2017 Jun;18(2):193-200. 10.4142/jvs.2017.18.2.193.

Alterations in antioxidant function and cell apoptosis in duck spleen exposed to molybdenum and/or cadmium

Affiliations
  • 1Institute of Animal Population Health, College of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agriculture University, Nanchang 330045, China. zhangcaiying0916@163.com

Abstract

To investigate the effects of molybdenum (Mo) and/or cadmium (Cd) on antioxidant function and the apoptosis-related genes in duck spleens. Sixty healthy 11-day-old ducks were randomly divided into six groups of 10 ducks (control, low Mo group, high Mo, Cd, low Mo + Cd, and high Mo + Cd groups). All were fed a basal diet containing low or high dietary doses of Mo and/or Cd. Relative spleen weight, antioxidant indices, apoptosis-related gene mRNA expression levels, and ultrastructural changes were evaluated after 120 days. The results showed that the relative spleen weight decreased significantly in the high Mo + Cd treatment group which compared with control group. Malondialdehyde levels increased and xanthine oxidase and catalase activities decreased in the Mo and/or Cd groups compared with levels in the control group. Bak-1 and Caspase-3 expressions were upregulated in the high Mo + Cd group, while Bcl-2 was downregulated. In addition, mitochondrial crest fracture, swelling, vacuolation, deformed nuclei, and karyopyknosis in both Mo + Cd treated groups were more severe than in the other groups. The results suggest that Mo and/or Cd can induce oxidative stress and apoptosis of spleen via effects on the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. Moreover, the results indicate the two elements have a possible synergistic relationship.

Keyword

apoptosis; cadmium; duck; molybdenum; oxidative stress

MeSH Terms

Animals
Antioxidants/*metabolism/physiology
Apoptosis/*drug effects
Cadmium/*toxicity
Catalase/metabolism
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Ducks/metabolism
Gene Expression/drug effects
Malondialdehyde/metabolism
Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/veterinary
Molybdenum/*toxicity
Organ Size/drug effects
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
Spleen/*drug effects/ultrastructure
Xanthine Oxidase/metabolism
Antioxidants
Cadmium
Malondialdehyde
Molybdenum
Catalase
Xanthine Oxidase

Figure

  • Fig. 1 Changes in the relative weight of duck spleen. Different lowercase letters are significantly different between groups (p < 0.05), and common lowercase or uppercase letters are not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05). Each value represents the mean ± SEM.

  • Fig. 2 Antioxidant index levels in duck serum. (A) Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. (B) Xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities. (C) Catalase (CAT) activities. Different lowercase letters are significantly different between groups (p < 0.05), different uppercase letters are highly significantly different between groups (p < 0.01), and common lowercase or uppercase letters are not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05). Each value represents the mean ± SEM.

  • Fig. 3 Antioxidant index values in duck spleen. (A) Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. (B) Xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities. (C) Catalase (CAT) activities. Different lowercase letters are significantly different between groups (p < 0.05), different uppercase letters are highly significantly different between groups (p < 0.01), and common lowercase or uppercase letters are not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05). Each value represents the mean ± SEM.

  • Fig. 4 Effects of molybdenum (Mo)- and/or cadmium (Cd)-induced changes in the mRNA levels of apoptosis-related genes. (A) Bak-1. (B) Bcl-2. (C) Caspase-3. Different lowercase letters are significantly different between groups (p < 0.05), different uppercase letters are highly significantly different between groups (p < 0.01), and common lowercase or uppercase letters are not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05). Each value represents the mean ± SEM.

  • Fig. 5 Representative images from transmission electron microscopy of spleen tissue. (A) Normal spleen cell in control group. (B) No significant changes in spleen cells in the low dietary molybdenum (LMo) group. (C) Mitochondrial crest fracture and vacuolation of spleen cells in the high dietary molybdenum (HMo) group. (D) Vacuolation and crest fracture of spleen cells in the cadmium (Cd) group. (E) Nuclear deformation and chromatin marginalization of spleen cells in the LMo + Cd group. (F) Typical characteristics of apoptosis, including karyopyknosis, mitochondrial crest fracture, and vacuolation in the HMo + Cd group. 2,950× (A, C–E), 1,200× (B), 2,200× (F).


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