J Nutr Health.  2018 Feb;51(1):87-102. 10.4163/jnh.2018.51.1.87.

Development of NQ-E, Nutrition Quotient for Korean elderly: item selection and validation of factor structure

  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea.
  • 2Department of Food and Nutrition, Yongin University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 17092, Korea.
  • 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Hannam University, Daejeon 34430, Korea.
  • 4Department of Food and Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea.
  • 5Nutrition for the Future Inc., Seoul 08788, Korea.
  • 6Department of Statistics, Hannam University, Daejeon 34430, Korea.
  • 7Department of Foodservice Management and Nutrition, Sangmyung University, Seoul 03016, Korea.
  • 8Department of Food and Nutrition, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38453, Korea. yschoi@daegu.ac.kr


The purpose of this study was to develop a valid instrument for measuring the dietary quality and behaviors of Korean elderly.
The development of the Nutrition Quotient for Elderly (NQ-E) was conducted in three steps: item generation, item reduction, and validation. The 41 items of the NQ-E checklist were derived from a systematic literature review, expert in-depth interviews, statistical analyses of the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, and national nutrition policies and recommendations. Pearson's correlation was used to determine the level of agreement between the questionnaires and nutrient intake level, and 24 items were selected for a nationwide survey. A total of 1,000 nationwide elderly subjects completed the checklist questionnaire. The construct validity of the NQ-E was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis, LISREL.
The nineteen checklist items were used as final items for NQ-E. Checklist items were composed of four-factors: food behavior (6 items), balance (4 items), diversity (6 items), and moderation (3 items). The standardized path coefficients were used as the weights of the items. The NQ-E and four-factor scores were calculated according to the obtained weights of the questionnaire items.
NQ-E would be a useful tool for assessing the food behavior and dietary quality of the elderly.


nutrition quotient for the elderly; NQ-E; food behavior; dietary quality; checklist
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