Korean J Orthod.  2017 Mar;47(2):87-99. 10.4041/kjod.2017.47.2.87.

A three-dimensional photogrammetric analysis of the facial esthetics of the Miss Korea pageant contestants

  • 1Graduate School, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Orthodontics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
  • 3Department of Postgraduate Studies, the Universidad Autonóma del Paraguay, Asunción, Paraguay.
  • 4Postgraduate Orthodontic Program, Arizona School of Dentistry & Oral Health, A.T. Still University, Mesa, AZ, USA.
  • 5Graduate School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.
  • 6Department of Orthodontics, Oral Biology Research Institute, Kyung Hee University School of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.
  • 7Formal Adjunct Professor at UCLA and Clinical Professor at USC Orthodontics Currently Private Practice in Los Angeles, CA, USA.
  • 8Department of Orthodontics, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. kook190036@yahoo.com


The aims of this study were to measure and compare the facial dimensions of the Miss Korea pageant contestants and a selected group of women from the general population by using three-dimensional (3D) image analysis, as well as to compare various facial ratios to the golden ratio within each group.
Three-dimensional images of 52 Miss Korea pageant contestants (MK group) and 41 young female adults selected from the general population (GP group) were acquired. Fifty-four variables and ratios were measured and calculated. Intergroup comparisons were performed using multivariate analysis of variance.
Compared to the GP group, the MK group showed greater total facial height and eye width, lesser lower-facial height, and lesser facial, lower-facial, and nasal widths. Moreover, compared to the GP group, the MK group had more protruded noses with greater nasolabial angle, greater vertical curvature of the foreheads, lesser horizontal curvature of the cheek, and lesser lower-lip-and-chin volume.
The MK group had longer faces but smaller lower lips and chins than did the GP group. The golden ratio was not matching the current facial esthetic standards. These data might be beneficial for treatment planning of patients undergoing orthognathic and plastic surgeries.


3D facial photogrammetric analysis; Preferred facial appearance; Golden ratio; Miss Korea

MeSH Terms

Imaging, Three-Dimensional
Multivariate Analysis


  • Figure 1 Reorientation of the head position and construction of the three-dimensional coordinate system.

  • Figure 2 Linear variables. 1, Inter-endocanthal width; 2, inter-pupil width; 3, inter-exocanthal width; 4, eye width; 5, facial width; 6, nasal width; 7, philtrum width; 8, mouth width; 9, lower-facial width; 10, total facial height; 11, facial height; 12, lower-facial height; 13, forehead height; 14, eye height; 15, nasal height; 16, ear height; 17, mouth height; 18, upper lip height; 19, lower lip height; 20, upper vermilion height; 21, lower vermilion height; 22, Cupid's bow height; 23, lower-lip-and-chin height; 24, upper lip protrusion; 25, lower lip protrusion; 26, nasal protrusion.

  • Figure 3 Angular and areal variables. 1, Upper vermilion angle; 2, lower vermilion angle; 3, nasal tip angle; 4, nasolabial angle; 5, Cupid's bow angle; 6, central bow angle; 7, labiomental fold; 8, upper vermilion area; 9, lower vermilion area; 10, total vermilion perimeter.

  • Figure 4 Horizontal (A) and vertical (B) curvatures of the forehead; horizontal (C) and vertical (D) curvatures of the cheek; horizontal (E) and vertical (F) curvatures of the chin; mandibular curve (G).

  • Figure 5 A, Upper facial volume; B, chin volume.

  • Figure 6 A proportional diagram of the average face from the Miss Korea group (A) and another from the general population group (B).

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Zhi-Yu Liu, Jie Yu, Fan-Fan Dai, Ruo-Ping Jiang, Tian-Min Xu
Korean J Orthod. 2019;49(4):222-234.    doi: 10.4041/kjod.2019.49.4.222.


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