Child Kidney Dis.  2017 Oct;21(2):128-135. 10.3339/jkspn.2017.21.2.128.

Clinical Significance of Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Bacteria in First Pediatric Febrile Urinary Tract Infections and Differences between Age Groups

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. KKKJHD@yuhs.ac

Abstract

PURPOSE
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria-induced urinary tract infections are increasing and require more potent antibiotics such as carbapenems. We evaluated the clinical significance of extended-spectrum β-lactamase urinary tract infection in children younger than 5 years to select proper antibiotics and determine prognostic factors. Differences were compared between age groups.
METHODS
We retrospectively studied 288 patients with their first febrile urinary tract infection when they were younger than 5 years. Patients were divided into extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-negative urinary tract infection groups. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between the groups; an infant group was separately analyzed (onset age younger than 3 months).
RESULTS
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase urinary tract infection occurred in 11% patients who had more frequent previous hospitalization (P=0.02) and higher recurrence rate (P=0.045). During the antimicrobial susceptibility test, the extendedspectrum β-lactamase-positive urinary tract infection group showed resistance to third-generation cephalosporins; however, 98% patients responded clinically. In the infant group, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive urinary tract infection occurred in 13% patients and was associated with a longer pre-onset hospitalization history (P=0.002), higher C-reactive protein level (P=0.04), and higher recurrence rate (P=0.02) than that in the older group.
CONCLUSION
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase urinary tract infection requires more attention because of its higher recurrence rate. The antimicrobial susceptibility test demonstrated resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, but they can be used as first-line empirical antibiotics because of their high clinical response rate. Aminoglycosides can be second-line antibiotics before starting carbapenems when third-generation cephalosporins do not show bactericidal effects for extended-spectrum β-lactamase urinary tract infection.

Keyword

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase; Urinary tract infection; Age; Cephalosporin
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