Transl Clin Pharmacol.  2017 Sep;25(3):141-146. 10.12793/tcp.2017.25.3.141.

Caffsim: simulation of plasma caffeine concentrations implemented as an R package and Web-applications

  • 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul 05505, Republic of Korea.


Caffeine is a naturally-occurring central nervous system stimulant found in plant constituents including coffee, cocoa beans, and tea leaves. Consumption of caffeine through imbibing caffeinated drinks is rapidly growing among children, adolescents, and young adults, who tend to be more caffeine-sensitive than the rest of the general public; consequently, caffeine-related toxicities among these groups are also growing in number. However, a quantitative and interactive tool for predicting the plasma caffeine concentration that may lead to caffeine intoxication has yet to be developed. Using the previously established population-pharmacokinetic model, we developed "caffsim" R package and its web-based applications using Shiny and EDISON (EDucation-research Integration through Simulation On the Net). The primary aim of the software is to easily predict and calculate plasma caffeine concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters and visualize their changes after single or multiple ingestions of caffeine. The caffsim R package helps understand how plasma caffeine concentration changes over time and how long toxic concentration of caffeine can last in caffeine-sensitive groups. It may also help clinical evaluation of relationship between caffeine intake and toxicities when suspicious acute symptoms occur.


caffeine; pharmacokinetics; R package
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