J Prev Med Public Health.  2023 Jan;56(1):21-30. 10.3961/jpmph.22.340.

Predisposing, Enabling, and Reinforcing Factors of COVID-19 Prevention Behavior in Indonesia: A Mixed-methods Study

  • 1Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Binawan University, East Jakarta, Indonesia


To prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), behaviors such as mask-wearing, social distancing, decreasing mobility, and avoiding crowds have been suggested, especially in high-risk countries such as Indonesia. Unfortunately, the level of compliance with those practices has been low. This study was conducted to determine the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors of COVID-19 prevention behavior in Indonesia.
This cross-sectional study used a mixed-methods approach. The participants were 264 adults from 21 provinces in Indonesia recruited through convenience sampling. Data were collected using a Google Form and in-depth interviews. Statistical analysis included univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression. Furthermore, qualitative data analysis was done through content analysis and qualitative data management using Atlas.ti software.
Overall, 44.32% of respondents were non-compliant with recommended COVID-19 prevention behaviors. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, low-to-medium education level, poor attitude, insufficient involvement of leaders, and insufficient regulation were also associated with decreased community compliance. Based on in-depth interviews with informants, the negligence of the Indonesian government in the initial stages of the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to the unpreparedness of the community to face the pandemic, as people were not aware of the importance of preventive practices.
Education level is not the only factor influencing community compliance with recommended COVID-19 prevention behaviors. Changing attitudes through health promotion to increase public awareness and encouraging voluntary community participation through active risk communication are necessary. Regulations and role leaders are also required to improve COVID-19 prevention behavior.


Predisposing factors; Enabling factors; Reinforcing factors; COVID-19; Indonesia
Full Text Links
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2024 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr